Europe and the Age of Absolutism

107 terms by herjenocide 

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decentralized

Political power and control during Europe's Feudal Period could best be classified by this one term.

Christian Crusades

What 13th Century event sparked a shift in European power over the next few centuries?

absolutism

This concept refers to the idea that a ruler (such as a king) has no limitations on their power.

divine right

Following the growth of Christianity rulers could no longer claim to be "godlike" so the concept that a ruler has total power because they've been chosen by God is known as what?

France, Europe, Prussia, Austria, and Russia

List the five great powers of Europe in no particular order of significance.

Russia

Which of the five great powers has had two different capital cities over its history?

War of the Roses

Identify the name of the civil war that England was involved with from 1455-1487.

Henry VII

Who emerged from the war of the roses to become the king of England in 1485? Hint: he was a Tudor that married Elizabeth of York.

Henry VIII

Who became king of England in 1509?

Catherine of Aragon. Daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain

Who became the wife of the new English king Henry VIII? Who were her parents?

Mary

Who was the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon?

Anglican Church

In 1533, Henry VIII seceded all of England from the Roman Catholic Church and formed a new Church of England that goes by what better known name?

Archbishop of Canterbury

Although the Act of Supremacy declared the English monarch to be the head of the new church, which church official serves as the daily executive of the church?

Anne Boleyn

After Henry VIII divorced his first wife this woman quickly became his new wife.

Elizabeth

Henry VIII and his second wife had one child, a daughter named what?

execution

Henry VIII accused his second wife of adultery (treason) and what was her punishment?

Jane Seymour

Following the death of his second wife, Henry would marry this woman.

Edward

Henry VIII and his third wife had one child, a son named what?

six years

How long did Edward VI rule as king of England?

Elizabeth. 1603

Who was the last monarch of the Tudor dynasty? What year did it end?

James I

This King of Scotland, known there as James VI, became the king of England in 1603 and started the Stuart Dynasty of England. What title did he take as king of England?

Anglicans

Which of England's 17th Century protestant religious groups liked fancy, ornate churches with stained glass windows, crucifixes, and did not differ much from the Catholic Church?

Puritans

This group of English Protestants, known as Anglican Separatists, preferred plain, simple churches without all of the ornamentation associated with the Catholic Church?

Magna Charta

This document, signed in England by King John in 1215, declared in very clear terms that the English monarch was NOT an absolute ruler.

Parliament

What is the name of the English legislative body, somewhat equivalent to Congress?

Power of the Purse

The power of a government to tax/spend may very well be its greatest authority. What is this called, especially in England?

House of Lords and House of Commons

What are the two chambers of the English legislative body?

Spain

England was at war with what European nation during the mid-16th Century? Hint: it ended in 1588.

They cut off his money

James Stuart I of England declared he would rule England absolutely on the basis of divine right. What was Parliament's reaction?

Guy Fawkes

On November 5, 1605, this Catholic fanatic orchestrated an attempt to blow up Parliament house with the hopes of assassinating the new king that was not protective of Catholics.

Gunpowder Plot of 1605

What is the name of the event when someone attempted to blow up Parliament house with the hopes of assassinating the new king?

The bible

In 1622, James Stuart I commissioned a translation/revision of what Holy Scripture?

Charles I

Which Stuart monarch succeeded James I in 1625?

Henrietta Maria. Sister of King Louis XIII

Who was the wife of the king that succeeded James I? Who was her brother?

Petition of Right

What law did Charles Stuart I sign in 1628 that made the custom of Parliamentary Power of the Purse a codified law for the first time in English history?

Dissolved parliament and refused to call them back into session

Not long after signing the Petition of Right, Charles Stuart I did what with Parliament beginning in 1629 through 1640.

Oliver Cromwell

When Charles I convened Parliament in 1640 this former MP (Member of Parliament) was packing his things to ship off to the New World.

Scotland

Charles Stuart I was facing a potential invasion in 1640 by what nation to the north of England due to his attempts to abolish the Presbyterian Church there?

Puritan Revolution

Charles Stuart I attempted to negotiate with Parliament but it did not go well. Instead, England erupted into a civil war that is also known by what name?

cavaliers

Supporters of King Charles I during the civil war were primarily High Anglican nobles that supported an absolute monarchy and were called what?

roundheads

Supporters of Oliver Cromwell during the civil war were primarily middle class Puritans that supported a strong Parliament and were called what?

New model army

What was the official name of the middle class army of the English Civil War? Hint: the name reflected the organization and discipline of the soldiers that comprised it.

Battle of Naseby

This key battle of 1645 would mark a key victory of the civil war for the middle class army that supported Parliament and is considered the decisive battle of the war.

King Charles I

What key political figure was captured on the battlefield from the battle of naseby?

France

Not long after the civil war ended, Charles Stuart I petitioned what European nation to provide military aid to help him fight Cromwell's army?

Whitehall Palace

Charles Stuart I would be charged with treason because of his actions in petitioning france to help fight Cromwell's army. He was found guilty and executed in front of what famous London palace?

The interregnum

Following the execution of Charles Stuart I, England entered a period of rule with no monarch (1649-1660); what is this called?

Lord High Protector

During the period of the interregnum, Oliver Cromwell ruled England as a tyrant but took what title?

ireland

What modern European nation was a key target for Oliver Cromwell during his time of power? Hint: his goal was to convert them all to Puritanism.

Richard Cromwell

When Oliver Cromwell died in 1658 who replaced him as the ruler of England? Hint: it was his son but you need to know his name.

Charles II

Just two years after Oliver Cromwell's son came to power he would be deposed in a coup d'état. Who would replace him as the first king to rule England since 1649?

Whig Party

This political party grew out of the Roundheads of the civil war and mostly consisted of middle class Puritans that supported a strong Parliament.

Tory Party

This political party grew out of the Cavaliers of the civil war and mostly consisted of upper class Anglicans that supported a strong monarch.

He rigged the election laws to insure the tories got a majority in parliament

How did Charles II serve as the most absolute of all the Stuart monarchs despite having numerous written laws that limited his power, including a constitution?

James II

This Stuart monarch would succeed Charles II upon his death in 1685. Hint: he was the brother of Charles II and he was 52-years old at the time.

Glorious revolution of 1688

In 1688 James II was overthrown in a coup d'état that sent the king, his wife and newborn son to France. What is this event called?

Mary of the netherlands

This woman was the daughter of James II and in 1689 she would be invited to rule England (along with her husband William who had no blood connections to the Stuart dynasty)

English Bill of Rights

William and Mary had to sign two important new documents into law before being allowed to take the throne. What was the first document?

Reaffirmed the magna charta, reaffirmed the petition of right, king could not raise a standing army, and guaranteed regular session for parliament

Identify 4 key points of the english bill of rights.

toleration act of 1689

The second document signed into law in 1689 by william and mary was an attempt to resolve the religious turmoil of England. It officially prohibited the persecution of any religious group, except Catholics.

William III

Mary II of England died in 1694 leaving the throne to this man, her non-Stuart husband, until his death in 1702.

Anne Stuart

Which Stuart monarch succeeded William III. Hint: she would be the last of the Stuart dynasty.

The act of union

In 1707, Anne Stuart oversaw the passage of this important legislation that officially joined the Parliaments of England and Scotland into the United Kingdom.

Hanoverian Dynasty

What new dynasty began after the death of Anne Stuart? Hint: they were German but were invited to rule England because they had the closest blood heritage.

george

The first four kings of the hanoverian dynasty were all named what?

King George III

Which george was king at the time of the American War for Independence?

Responsible Government

As a solution to the problem Parliament faced with the hanoverian dynasty they established a system of government that outlined its administrative powers. What is it called?

Prime minister

Which officer would serve as the executive head of state in the responsible government?

cabinet

What do we call the group of advisors, collectively, that advises the executive in the responsible government?

Reform bill

What British term is used to describe what Americans consider a constitutional amendment?

Louis XIV

Who was the king of France from 1661-1715?

Palace of Versailles

What lavish palace did Louis XIV have built in the late 17th Century at a cost of $100 million?

Hall of Mirrors

What is the most famous room in the palace of versailles?

balance of power

What is the name of the primary British foreign policy established in the 17th Century? Hint: the goal was to ensure that no mainland European state could threaten Britain's dominance.

pripet marsh

The East Slavs that first inhabited what is today Russia came from this huge marshy area of what is now Eastern Poland.

Rurik

About 900 AD, this Viking warrior migrated southward and conquered the East Slavs.

Muscovy, Moscow

Around 1000 AD, Byzantine Christian missionaries came to the area and converted the people to Eastern Orthodoxy. What was one of the most prominent settlements to form during this period? What city is it today?

Boyars

This term refers to the Russian nobility that owned the agricultural land of the nation.

serfs

This term refers to the Russian peasant class that worked the land of the nobility.

Michael Romanov

In 1613, this man emerged victorious from a civil war to become the first Tsar in a longstanding Russian Romanov dynasty.

German suburb

Michael Romanov wanted Russia to be more like Western Europe so he forged this area of Moscow as a community of Europeans that would teach Russians of their culture and skilled crafts.

Peter the Great

This man, son of Alexis Romanov, was born in the Kremlin Palace on May 30, 1672.

He spent most of his time in the german suburb talking to westerners.

How did Peter the great learn so much about European culture and skills?

The great northern war

In 1700, Russia engaged a war with Sweden that is now known by what name?

Charles XII

Who was the king of Sweden at the time of the great northern war?

scorched earth policy

This military strategy was developed by Russia during the great northern war and involves a full retreat while burning crops and buildings so that the enemy cannot utilize them.

general winter

This military strategy was developed by Russia during the great nothern war and involves dragging out the war as long as possible in hopes of the arrival of this great "ally" that will provide the Russian army some cover to launch their counter-attack.

St. Petersburg

Following the war with Sweden, Russia established a new capital city that sits on the coast of the Baltic Sea; what is the name of this key Russian port city?

Winter palace

This became the new home of the Romanov family in their new capital city. Hint: it was built around 1721.

Elizabeth. Grand Duke Peter III

Who was the Russian Tsarina in 1745? Who was the nephew for whom she arranged a marriage at that time?

Sophia. Catherine the great

What was the German birth name of the woman that would marry Grand Duke Peter III? What name is she known for Tsarina of Russia?

Poland

As Tsarina, Catherine the great expanded Russia's territory to the west at the expense of what European power?

Ottoman Empire

As Tsarina, Catherine the great expanded Russia's territory to the south and the Black Sea at the expense of what empire?

The Austrian Empire

This great European power was ruled by the Hapsburgs and includes a Germanic and Slavic population. Hint: they dominated the old Holy Roman Empire for a long time.

Schonbrunn Palace

What is the name of the dynastic palace of the Hapsburgs from the previous question?

Hohenzollerns

What is the name of the dynastic family that ruled the Prussian Empire?

King Frederick William I

This Prussian king built up the military capacity of his empire and ruled with one simple decree, "No reasoning, obey orders."

junkers

This term refers to the Prussian nobility that owned most of the land in Prussia.

Frederick the great

Frederick II came to power in Prussia in 1740 but is better known by what name?

Silesia

Frederick the great started a war with Austria over this borderland province because it was rich in coal and iron ore, two things used to build strong arsenals.

Maria Theresa

Who was the Empress of Austria at the time of the war for silesia?

The seven years war

What do we call this war for silesia fought in Europe from 1756-1763?

Peter III

During the seven years war Tsarina Elizabeth of Russia died and this man replaced her?

Ordered his army to stop fighting frederick and come to his aid

What did Peter III order his army to do in 1762?

Prussia because of england

Who won the seven years war, Austria or Prussia? Because of which nation?

Treaty of Paris

Name the treaty that ended the seven years war. Hint: it was signed in 1763

France

Which European power lost the most territory as a result of the treaty of paris?

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