What replaced the Western Roman Empire by 500?
Which of the German states on the European continent proved long lasting?
Germans and Romans _____ and created a new society in which German _____ had an important role. The extended family was the _____ of German society. They worked that land together and _____ each other in violent times.
intermarried, customs, center, protected
What did the coronation of Charlemagne symbolize?
coming together of Roman, Christian, and Germanic elements that forged European civilizations
Why do we have manuscripts of ancient Roman literary works today?
Benedicitne monks coppied Christian and classical Latin manuscripts
Describe the importance of manasteries by answering these questions: What did Saint Benedict do?
founded an order of monks and wrote rules for their practice
Explain how monks became the social workers of their comunities
They were the centers of learning
688-741, leader who defeated the Muslims at the Battle of Tours in 732
Pepin the Short
714-768, Son of Charles Martel and mayor of the palace
742-814, Son of Pepin the Short and one of history's greatest Kings.
988 (Kiev adopts Eastern Orthodoxy), 1066 (William of Normandy invades England), 1180 (Philip II Augustus becomes King of France, (1302) French parliament assembled
Describe the benefits granted a vassal under feudalism.
A vassal was a man who served a lord. Military, had political authority in their fiefs
List the invasions that besieged the Carolingian Empire in the 9th and 10th centuries.
The Muslims, Vikings, and Magyers
What were the Viking activities in which they excelled?
superb warriors, sailors, and ship builders
How were the viking ships designed and why was this an advantage for the Vikings?
Ships were long and narrow with carved, arched prows
Where did the Vikings come from?
The development of feudalism: Why did people begin to turn to local landed aristocrats or nobles to protect them?
Invaders were a large threat. Rulers had trouble defending their people as centralized governments
Describe the heavily armored calvalry known as knights
They had great prestige and formed the backbone of the European aristocaracy
What purpose did castles serve during the high Middle Ages (1000-1300) ?
They were perminant residances and fortresses
In the 11th and 12th centries, under the influence of the Church, an ideal of civilized behavior among the nobility envolved. It was called chilvary, describeit
Knights were perminant residances and fortresses defenseless people, treat captives as honored guest, and fight for glory and not material rewards.