Excelsior Pathophysiology Practice Exam

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Practice 2

Which sign is a result of ischemia or prolonged immobilization of the legs?

Reduction in circumference of both calves; muscle wasting occurs with ischemia and immobilization and so the calf muscles will atrophy and decrease in size.

Why is fat necrosis a complication of pancreatitis?

The pancreas produces lipase; Lipases, released as a result of pancreatitic acinar cell injury in pancreatitis, act on fat to convert triglycerides to fatty acids.

Which is an X-linked single-gene disorder?

Hemophilia

How does pain from a malignant neoplasm differ from nonmalignant chronic pain?

Pain from a malignant neoplasm can be reduced by reducing fear.

What is common to all tumor suppressor genes?

Tumor suppressor genes inhibit cell proliferation.; The function of yumor suppressor genes is to interrupt the cell cycle to allow for reapair of damaged DNA.

During the healing of a burn wound, which part of the inflammation response must be managed in order to avoid burn shock?

Histamine release must be controlled to prevent increased capillary permeability and it contributes to blood volume loss and burn shock.

What is the greatest risk factor for a person who is immunocompromised?

Opportunistic infections by ones own normal flora

Which leukemia is the most common malignancy in children?

Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL); it is seen mostly in children between the ages of 3 and 7

Which disorder typically presents with skin thickening and connective tissue deposition that result in severe fibrosis?

Sclaroderma; it is a multisystem inflammatory disease of connective tissue characterized by skin thickening and deposits of large quantities of connective tissue that lead to severe fibrosis.

The presence of tarry, black feces in a newborn suggest which abnormaility?

Vitamin K deficiency; deficiency of vitamin K results in decreased vitamin k-dependent clotting factors and bleeding in the digestive tract, which leads to black tarry stools.

which condition results in red blood cell destruction that leads to anemia?

Drug-induced hemolysis

what is an example of type IV delayed hypersensitivity?

Contact dermatitis

Which statement best describes the underlying causes of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome?

An X-linked deficiency which affects cell signaling and cytoskeletal organization.

Secondary Hypertension

Increased blood pressure that is caused by another known condition; is most often related to renal disease

Vegatative growths on myocardial valves characterize which type of myocardial disorder?

Infective endocarditis; myocardial infection is characherized by heavy bacterial colonization of cardiac valves.

which manifestations are typically associated with left-sided congestive heart failure?

Dyspnea, oliguria, and crackles

Distended neck veins and pulsus paradoxus are seen in whcih disorder?

Cardiac tamponade

what are the necessary requirements for automaticity in SA nodal cells?

ion channels in phase 4 must open spontaneously due to hyperpolarization in phase 3

Which condition is best defined as an iflammation in a vein accompanied by thrombus?

Thrombophlebitis

How does nicootine affect the cardiovascular system?

it increases LDL

Which clinical signs indicae that a person is in hypovolemic shock?

Low preload and low cardiac output

Which condition is associated with rapid shallow breathing, respiratory alkalosis, refractory hypoxemia, and diffuse alveolar infiltrates?

Adult repiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

Which type of lung cancer is associated with early metastasis and has the worst prognosis?

Small-cell (oat cell) carcinoma; it doubles in as little as 33 days. producing widespread metastasis and is resistant to therapy.

Which condition increases the normal V/Q ratio and leads to reduced gas diffusion?

Decreased perfusion of the lungs due to a pulmonary embolism

Which set of clinical symptoms is most indicative of cystic fibrosis?

Recurrent pulmonary infections, cough with thick tenacious sputum, and steatorrhea.

Sudden pleural pain, tachypnea, and mild dyspnea are charcteristic of which condition?

Spontaneous pneumothorax

Which acid-base imbalance would temporarily be releived by breathing into a paper bag held over the mouth?

Respiratory Alkalosis

Which individual is at high risk for developing calcium renal stones?

the individual who is on prolonged bed rest

Cardiac arrhythmias are most often associated with which disorder?

Hyperkalemia

Proteinuria and hematuria are most likly to be associated with which condition?

Acute glomerulonephritis

Which form of renal failure can result from myocardial infarction or from ischemia?

Prerenal failure

which change leads to the formation of edema?

reduced capillary osmotic pressure

Which condition in adults is most closely associated with infection by Neisseria bacteria?

Meningitis

Which behavior is exhibited by a person experiencing an atypical absence generalized seizure?

Automatism

What is characteristic of pain impulses transmitted by fine, myelinated A fibers?

Fast transmission with sharp localized pain

Which regimen can slow the progress of osteoporosis?

Weight bearing exercise

Which condition predisposes an individual to a CVA subsequent to intracerebral hemorrhage?

Sever hypertension

Melena (blood in feces) can be a symptom of which complication of peptic ulcer disease?

Hemorrhage from the gastric mucosa

Myxedema is most frequently assoiciated with which disorder?

Hypothyroidism

Which characteristic is descriptive of type 1 diabetes but not of type 2 diabetes?

Unrelated to obesity

A person with a hx of cryptorchidism is at high risk for?

testicular carcinoma

Obstructive jaundice would result from gallstone blockage of which structure?

Common bile duct

Which disorder is associated with the development of deep fissures in the bowel wall which can develop into fisulae

Crohn Disease

which type of diarrhea results from lactose intolerance?

osmotic

Folic acid deficiency is characteristic of which condition?

Tropical sprue (a malabsprption disorder resulting from intestinal mucosal atrophy and inhibiting absorption of nutrients.

A client is seen in an emergency room with flank pain radiating to the genital area that rapidly progresses from mild to excruciating over 3 hours. Serum creatinine and BUN are elevated; urinalysis shows elevated pH, hypercalciuria, red blood cells, white blood cells, calcium oxalate crystals, absence of protein, nitrates, casts, and bacteria. What is the individuals most probable diagnosis?

Nephrolithiasis (kidney Stones)

Epogen (erythropoietin) is used to treat which complications of chronic renal failure?

Hematologi problems

Which type of aphasia is characterized by poorly articulated speech with limited vocabulary and simple grammatical constructions?

Broca aphasia

A client presents with jaundice, anorexia, periumbilical varices, and uncontrollanble bleeding of esphageal varices. What is the diagnosis?

Portal hypertension

Which lab test is most accurate in measuring fibrinolysis?

Plasma D-dimer assay

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