Holt, Rinehart, and Winston Modern Biology Vocabulary Chapter 10

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The given vocabulary and definitions for chapter 10 of Modern Biology by Holt, Rinehart, and Winston

Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis

Transcription

the process of forming a nucleic acid by using another molecule as a template; particularly the process of synthesizing RNA by using one strand of a DNA molecule as a template

Translation

the portion of protein synthesis that takes place at ribosomes and that uses the codons in mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains

Protein Synthesis

formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA, carried by mRNA

Ribose

a five-carbon sugar present in RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA)

a single-stranded RNA molecule encodes information to make a protein

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

an organelle that contains most of the RNA in the cell and that is responsible for ribosome function

Transfer RNA (tRNA)

folded single-stranded RNA, transfers amino acids to the ribosome to make a protein

RNA Polymerase

an enzyme that starts (catalyzes) the formation of RNA by using a strand of a DNA molecule as a template

Promoter

a nucleotide sequence on a DNA molecule to which an RNA polymerase molecule binds, which initiates the transcription of a specific gene

Termination Signal

a specific sequence of nucleotides that marks the end of a gene

Genetic Code

the rule that describes how a sequence of nucleotides, read in groups of three consecutive nucleotides (triplets) that correspond to specific amino acids, specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein

Codon

in DNA and mRNA, a three-nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start signal or a stop signal

Anticodon

a region of a tRNA molecule that consists of a sequence of three bases that is complementary to an mRNA codon

Genome

the complete genetic material contained in an individual or species

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