APUSH Unit 5 Review

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1883 legislation that attempted to replace the "spoils system" with a "merit system," by creating the Civil Service Commission. In other words, people seeking government jobs would now have to pass a test to receive the job, based on merit

Pendleton Act

New York democratic party/political machine; gained notoriety for corrupt practices; political machines came to power because of the rapid growth of cities-machines traded services to city-dwellers for votes at the polls

Tammany Hall

most famous political cartoonist of the Gilded Age; known for his scathing editorials against the infamous Boss Tweed

Thomas Nast

1882 legislation passed in response to complaints of workers on the West Coast that competition from Chinese immigrants was driving down wages and threatening white racial purity; ended Chinese immigration

Chinese Exclusion Act

aka: The National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry; founded by Oliver Kelley; promoted education and socialization of farmers

The Grange

1894; along with other unemployed people lead a march to Washington, D.C., to support enactment of laws that would create public works projects

Jacob Coxey

political party created in the 1890's that supported reform and represented the views of the farmers

Populists

economic situation in which goods and services are more expensive, therefore causing a decline in the value of money; loss of purchasing power

Inflation

a decline in general price levels, often caused by a reduction in the supply of money or credit

Deflation

1887 legislation passed as an attempt to assimilate the Indians by dividing reservations into individual pieces of land, breaking up the tribes

Dawes Severalty Act

written by Helen Hunt Jackson in 1881 to expose the atrocities the United States committed against Native Americans in the 19th century

A Century of Dishonor

The Significance of the Frontier in American History argued the closing of the Frontier had ended an era in American History

The Turner (Frontier) Thesis

in the mid 19th century, groups of miners searching for precious metal (gold and silver) began the surge into the West, beginning the boom-bust cycles of settlement

Miners

famous speech given by William Jennings Bryan; in support of bimetalism, Bryan spoke of the gold standard as a burden (like the cross)

"Cross of Gold" Speech

Election of 1896; partly because of the popularity of his speeches, he received the nomination of the Democrats and Populist

William Jennings Bryan

a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land; primary occupation of African Americans in the New South

Sharecropping

early African American civil rights leader; established Tuskegee Institute; known for his "Atlanta Compromise" of 1895

Booker T. Washington

speech given by Booker T. Washington that outlined his ideas concerning African American self-improvement through vocational education to achieve economic goals

Atlanta Compromise

the separation of the races in the United States

Segregation

provides equal protection and due process of the law

14th Amendment

taking away the right to vote

Disfranchise

the right to vote

Suffrage

unfair test administered to people in the South, to disfranchise black citizens

Literacy Test

voting tax used to keep black people from voting

Poll Tax

name adopted from a slavery-era play; during this time period, the law enforced segregation of African Americans from whites

Jim Crow Era

the African Americans migrating to the Great Plains state (ie: Kansas & Oklahoma) in 1879 to escape conditions in the South

Exodusters

the usage of both silver and gold as currency; Republicans believed i a money system based on the single gold standard, while the Democrats (Populist) believed in bimetallism

Bimetallism

paper currency (money)

Greenbacks

absorbing of a weak/smaller culture by a stronger/dominant culture

Assimilation

Indian tribe led by Chief Joseph; ordered onto a reservation in Idaho in 1877, they fled instead; after giving up they were removed to a reservation in Oklahoma

Nez Perce

1890 U.S. cavalry slaughter of Native Americans marketing the end of the Indian Wars on the Great Plain

Wounded Knee

1877 Supreme Court decision allowing state governments to regulate railroad rates

Munn v. Illinois

the Supreme Court ruled in 1886 that only the federal government could regulate interstate commerce, leading to the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission

Wabash v. Illinois

1896 Supreme Court decision allowing for "separate but equal" facilities

Plessy v. Ferguson

Jocob Coxey's army of unemployed who marched on Washington D.C. during the Panic of 1893

Coxey's Army

1884 election...GOP who criticized Blaine and defected to the Democrats.

Mugwumps

1887..began gov't regulation of the railroads...gov'ts policy switched from land subsidies to forbidding rebates to favored customers...required publication of rates, established ICC, prohibited rebates, outlawed short haul surchage.

Interstate Commerce Act

Cleveland elected again...Populists made strong gains in the West

1892 Election

Official US policy involved reservations the allotment of land to individuals

Indian Policies

technological advancement in the manufacturing of steel

Bessemer Process

1890...purpose was to attempt to restore business competition....was not immediately successful

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

Real wages declined, production increased dramatically, new types of business corporations emerged, immigration increased

Effects of Industrialism

not much success in the late 1800's because unionism was the opposite of American individualism

Labor Unions

during the Gilded Age...ruthless competitors who cheated investors and exploited workers...late 19th century

Robber Barons

Excluded from US in early 1880's ..first group to be targeted by Congress

Chinese Immigrants

Welcomed all workers: skilled/unskilled, black/white, male/female

Knights of Labor

Bombing in Chicago in 1886 at a labor rally...skilled workers abandoned the K of L in favor of the A F of L ...people associated unions with violence

Haymarket Riot

after 1890(more or less)...came from Southern and Easter Europe in the later 1800's ..settled in the big cities of the Northeast and Midwest

New Immigration

Carnegie....Control all aspects of the stell making to increase profits

Verticle Integration

Reockefeller...a company that buys other businesses in the same industry

Horizontal integration

assisted immigrants in exchange for their votes, found immigrants jobs, provided legal help and emergency assistance, psychological comfort

Urban Political Machines

headed a ring of politicians that cheated NY City out of $100 million

Boss Tweed

Pseudo-scientific evidence used by welathy Americans to prove that they deserved their wealthy...natural selection and survival of the fittest

Social Darwinism

Carnegie's belief that the wealthy must serve as trustees for their wealth and the public good

Carnegie's Gospel of Wealth

free coinage of silver to increase the supply of money in circulation

Populist Goals

Jane Addams was the leader of this movement...young, affluent college educated woman provided help for the immigrants

Settlement Houses

Populist/Dem Bryan Vs GOP McKinley...free silver vs gold standard...Bryan had made famous "Cross of Gold" speech

1896 Election

federal land to the states to establish colleges

Morrill Land Grant Act

required the gov't to purchase silver

Sherman Silver Purchase Act

Nez Perce Indian Cheif "I will fight no more forever"

Chief Joseph

from 1865-1890, most immigrants came from northern western Europe ...after that from southern to eastern Europe

Immigration Patterns

Leader of the American Railway Workers Union...he turned to socialism after the Pullman Strike

Eugene Debs

during the gilded Age it was the primary function of Pres

Patronage/Spoils System

increase currency/money supply for higher farm prices..reduce farmer's debt...reduce power of the eastern bankers...expand silver mining...were all favored by the Populists

Effects of the "free silver"

defended by the GOP because it brought additional revenue to the federal gov't ...was main issue that divided GOP and the Democrats in the Gilded Age

Protective Tariff

Established seperate, segregated facilities in the south

Jim Crow Laws

prevented former slaves (freedmen) from voting

KKK

the most devastating factor in their demise was the killing of the buffalo

Plains Indians

United States financier who accumulated great wealth from railroad and shipping businesses (1794-1877)

Cornelius Vanderbilt

American inventor of the telephone

Alexander Graham Bell

Inventor of lightbulb, phonograph and numerous other innovations

Thomas Edison

Built a steel mill empire; US STEEL

Andrew Carnegie

often referred to as the richest person in history, this man founded Standard Oil and became a philanthropist who contributed to many worthy projects including but not limited to medicine, scientific research and education.

John D. Rockerfeller

United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)

Samuel Gompers

Men that were known for monopolistic corpurations

Trust

railroad which extended from Omaha, Nebraska westward

Union Pacific

railroad which extended from sacramento, california eastward

Central Pacific

an association formed by farmers in the last 1800s to make life better for farmers by sharing information about crops, prices, and supplies

Grange

powerful and wealthy 19th century steel corporation founded by Andrew Carnagie and JP morgan

US Steel

Term that identified southern promoters' belief in the technologically advanced industrial South

New south

Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor

American Federation of Labor

Leader of Army At Sand Creek Massacre

Col. J Chivington

Found Gold in Black Hills and forced Sioux out (Little Big Horn)

General George Armstrong Custer

General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse

Little Big Horn

Refers to the overland transport of cattle by the cowboy over the three month period. Cattle were sold to settlers and Native Americans.

Long Drive

Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.

Homestead Act

Develpoed the Frontier Thesis

Fredrick Jackson Turner

A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy

Farmers Alliance

1894 - nonviolent strike (brought down the railway system in most of the West) at the Pullman Palace Car Co. over wages - Prez. Cleveland shut it down because it was interfering with mail delivery

Pullman Strike

Republican William McKinley defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in 1896. Bryan was the nominee of the Democrats, the Populist Party, and the Silver Republicans.Economic issues, including bimetallism, the gold standard, Free Silver, and the tariff, were crucial.

Election of 1896

English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)

Charles Darwin

Houses that poor people lived in, located in cities Showed some atrocities of American industrial life.

Dumbbell Tenement

Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages

18th Amendment

the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes

Jane Addams

fought for African American rights. Helped to found Niagra Movement in 1905 to fight for and establish equal rights. This movement later led to the establishment of the NAACP

W.E.B. Du Bois

Settlement house founded by progressive reformer Jane Adams in Chicago in 18889

Hull House

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