Genetics

Created by pmcbride 

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gene

section of DNA that codes for a particular trait

mutation

any change in the structure of DNA or chromosomes, or in the number of chromosomes

recombinant DNA

DNA produced by combining DNA from different organisms

genetic engineering

when scientists make changes to the DNA of organisms

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid, found in the nucleus, contains the genetic code

RNA

ribonucleic acid, mRNA takes to genetic code to the ribosomes, tRNA transfers amino acids to the ribosomes

selective breeding

selecting individuals with desirable traits to mate and reproduce

inherited

passed on from parents

chromosomes

found in the nucleus, made of DNA, contain hereditary information

nucleotide

building blocks of DNA and RNA, made of a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogen base

synthesis

to make

amino acid

building blocks of proteins

clone

genetically identical copy of an organism

insertion

type of mutation where there is an addition of a nitrogen base or potion of a chromosome

deletion

type of mutation where a nitrogen base or portion of a chromosome has been removed

substitution

type of mutation where one nitrogen base or section of chromosome is replaced by another

dominant

the characteristic that is expressed when genes for two traits are present

recessive

trait that is not expressed when genes for two traits are present

DNA fingerprinting

analysis of DNA in order to identify an individual

restriction enzymes

enzymes used in genetic engineering that cut the DNA at specific places

ligase

enzyme used in genetic engineering to splice two sections of DNA together

homologous chromosomes

pair of chromosomes, contain genes for the same traits

homozygous

two of the same alleles (genes) for a trait

heterozygous

two different alleles (genes) for a trait

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