First Nations and New France

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Aboriginal

original or earliest known; native; indigenous.

First Nations

the name used by Canada's Aboriginal or indigenous peoples, which refers to INDIAN peoples and may sometimes include the MÉTIS and INUIT.

Inuit

Inuit simply means "people." Inuit were earlier known by Europeans as "Eskimos"

igloo

Igloo, or snowhouse, was a winter dwelling utilized by INUIT across the Arctic.

kayak

A one-person closed-deck hunting craft, employed by Inuit groups.

umiak

Used for moving family and possessions to seasonal hunting areas and for whaling expeditions.

shaman

A religious or mystical expert (male or female) who in FIRST NATIONS and INUIT societies undergoes initiation experiences in altered states of consciousness.

Iroquois

A term which designates a confederacy of 5 tribes originally inhabiting the northern part of New York state, consisting of the SENECA, CAYUGA, ONEIDA, ONONDAGA and MOHAWK.

Indian Reserve

land set aside by treatys.

longhouse

The basic house type of northern Iroquoian peoples such as the HURON and IROQUOIS.

tipi

A conical skin-and-frame dwelling, the tipi was an easily moved yet substantial structure used by the nomadic Plains Indians.

wigwam

an Algonquian domed or conical dwelling prevalent in the eastern half of N America. The circular framework of poles was covered with bark or reed mats.

Plains India

Indigenous people living in area from southern Manitoba and the Mississippi River westward to the Rocky Mountains, and from the North Saskatchewan River south into Texas

potlatch

A highly regulated event historically common to most Northwest Coast native groups

land claims

Enabled INDIANS, INUIT and MÉTIS to obtain full recognition of their rights under treaties or as the original inhabitants of what is now Canada.

canoe

Principal means of water transportation of the woodlands natives and the VOYAGEURS

totem pole

The signboard, genealogical record and memorial of Northwest Coast Indian tribes.

residential school

A variety of educational institutions. Residential schools are usually considered part of the assimilative policies that the Canadian government directed at native peoples from the 1880s onward.

buffalo

hoofed MAMMALS of the cattle family common to the Canadian prairie.

pemmican

Dried meat, usually BISON, pounded into coarse powder and mixed with an equal amount of melted fat, and occasionally saskatoon berries or other edibles.

travois

A device for transportation among Plains Indians, the travois consisted of 2 long poles, each lashed to the sides of the dog (and later horse) pulling it.

sun dance

An annual Plains Indian culture ceremony given at midsummer when bands and tribes congregated at a predetermined location.

Indian Treaties

Treaties in Canada are constitutionally recognized agreements between the Crown and aboriginal peoples.

Leif Eriksson

Norse explorer of America

Vikings

Scandinavian pirates who plundered the coasts of Europe from the 8th to 10th centuries.

King Louis XIV

French king known as the Sun King. Reigned from 1643 to 1715

epidemic

Affecting many persons at the same time, and spreading from person to person in a locality where the disease is not permanently prevalent.

coureurs de bois

Itinerant, unlicensed fur traders of NEW FRANCE known as "wood-runners" to the English on Hudson Bay and "bush-lopers"

voyageurs

An adventurer who journeyed by canoe from Montréal to the interior to trade with Indians for furs.

seigneurial system

An institutional form of land distribution and occupation established in NEW FRANCE in 1627.

Quebec

The largest province in Canada.

Jacques Cartier

Navigator; Cartier led 3 voyages of exploration to the St Lawrence region beginning in 1534.

Samuel de Champlain

Cartographer, explorer, governor of New France. The major role Champlain played in the St Lawrence River area earned him the title of "father of New France."

Jean Talon

Talon was a determined, energetic and imaginative INTENDANT of New France from 1665-68 and 1669-72.

Montcalm

Military officer at Québec City to 14 Sept 1759. Defeated by the English at the Batlle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759.

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