the name used by Canada's Aboriginal or indigenous peoples, which refers to INDIAN peoples and may sometimes include the MÉTIS and INUIT.
A religious or mystical expert (male or female) who in FIRST NATIONS and INUIT societies undergoes initiation experiences in altered states of consciousness.
A term which designates a confederacy of 5 tribes originally inhabiting the northern part of New York state, consisting of the SENECA, CAYUGA, ONEIDA, ONONDAGA and MOHAWK.
A conical skin-and-frame dwelling, the tipi was an easily moved yet substantial structure used by the nomadic Plains Indians.
an Algonquian domed or conical dwelling prevalent in the eastern half of N America. The circular framework of poles was covered with bark or reed mats.
Indigenous people living in area from southern Manitoba and the Mississippi River westward to the Rocky Mountains, and from the North Saskatchewan River south into Texas
Enabled INDIANS, INUIT and MÉTIS to obtain full recognition of their rights under treaties or as the original inhabitants of what is now Canada.
A variety of educational institutions. Residential schools are usually considered part of the assimilative policies that the Canadian government directed at native peoples from the 1880s onward.
Dried meat, usually BISON, pounded into coarse powder and mixed with an equal amount of melted fat, and occasionally saskatoon berries or other edibles.
A device for transportation among Plains Indians, the travois consisted of 2 long poles, each lashed to the sides of the dog (and later horse) pulling it.
An annual Plains Indian culture ceremony given at midsummer when bands and tribes congregated at a predetermined location.
Treaties in Canada are constitutionally recognized agreements between the Crown and aboriginal peoples.
Affecting many persons at the same time, and spreading from person to person in a locality where the disease is not permanently prevalent.
coureurs de bois
Itinerant, unlicensed fur traders of NEW FRANCE known as "wood-runners" to the English on Hudson Bay and "bush-lopers"
An adventurer who journeyed by canoe from Montréal to the interior to trade with Indians for furs.
An institutional form of land distribution and occupation established in NEW FRANCE in 1627.
Navigator; Cartier led 3 voyages of exploration to the St Lawrence region beginning in 1534.
Samuel de Champlain
Cartographer, explorer, governor of New France. The major role Champlain played in the St Lawrence River area earned him the title of "father of New France."
Talon was a determined, energetic and imaginative INTENDANT of New France from 1665-68 and 1669-72.