Principles of Pharmacology

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76 terms · Chapter 7 EMT-B

pharmacology

the study of the properties and effects of medication

medication

a chemical substance that is used to treat or prevent disease or relieve pain

pharmacodynamics

is the process by which a medication works on the body

agonist

a medication that causes stimulation of receptors

antagonist

medications that bind to a receptor and block other medications

action

the therapeutic effects of a medication on the b ody

intended effect

the effect the medication is expected to have

indications

therapeutic uses of a specific medication
the reasons for which a particular medication is give

contraindications

conditions that make a medication or treatment inappropriate; a condition where medication should not be given because it would harm the patient or have no positive effect on the patients condition

side effects

any actions of a medication other than the desired ones

unintended effects

effects that are undesirable but pose little risk to the patient

untoward effects

effects that can be harmful to a patient

enteral medication

enter the body through the digestive system, a pill or liquid

parenteral medications

enter the body by a route other than the digestive tract, the skin or the mucous membranes. they are often in a liquid form and are generally administered using syringes and needles
absorbed more quickly then enteral

PR

per rectum
rapid

Per os (PO)

orally enter the bloodstream through the digestive track
slow 30-60 minutes

IV

intravenous injections - into the vein
immediate

IM

intramuscular injections - into the muscle
moderate

IO

Intraosseous injection - into the bone - given this way in enters the bloodstream through the bone marrow
immediate

inhalation

inhaled into the lungs
some work in the lungs and some are absorbed into the bloodstream more quickly
usually delivered through a nonrebreather mask or a nasal cannula
rapid

SL

sublingingual - dissolves under the tongue,
advantages - easy to advise patients, quick absorption.
disadvantages - constant evaluation of the airway, possible choking, not for uncooperative or unconscious patients
rapid

transcutaneous (transdermal) medication

means through the skin
example nitroglycerin paste
adhesive patch

IN

intranasal - a delivery route where medication is pushed through a specialized atomize device called a mucosal atomizer device (MAD)

solution

liquid mixture that cannot be separated by filtering, example nitroglycerin spray

suspension

a mixture of ground particles that are distributed evenly throughout a liquid but do not dissolve
will separated if sits,example amoxicilin

MDI

metered-dose inhaler - a miniature spray canister used to direct mist or spray through the mouth and into the lungs. it delivers the same amount of medication every time,

topical medications

lotions, creams and ointments that are applied to the surface of the skin and affect only that area

gel

semiliquid substance administered orally in capsule form or through plastic tubs
example oral glucose

what are the six rights of medication

right patient
right medication
right dose
right route
right time (check the expiration date and condition of meds)
right documentation

peer-assisted medication

when and EMT administers drugs to himself or partner

patient-assisted medication

when an EMT assist a patient in administering his on medication

EMT-administered medication

the EMT is directly administering medication to the patient

medications EMTs are allowed to administer

oxygen
activated charcoal
oral glucose
aspirin
epinephrine
albuterol
nitrogycerin

adsorption

the process of binding or sticking to a surface,

absorption

theyprocess by which medications travel through body tissues until they reach the bloodstream

activated charcoal

binds and adsorbs ingested toxins in the gastrointestinal tract for treatment of posioning or medication overdose
ground into a very fine powder to provide the greatest possible surface area for binding

hypoglocemia

extremely low BGL

acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)

aspirin - an antipyretic (reduces fever), analgesic (reduces pain), and anti-inflammatory (reduces inflammation) and antiaggregit (inhibits platelet aggregation)

nitroglycerin

given for chest pain angina
relieves pain, increases blood flow, relaxes veins
increases cardiac perfusion by causing arteries to dilate
do NOT give to patients that have taken ED drugs such as viagra (sildenafil), cialis (tadalafil), levitra (vardenafil) within a 24hour period do NOT give if BP is >100

mycardial infarction (MI)

heart attack - a blood clot forms in a narrowed coronary artery which blocks the blood flow to a section of the heart

nitroglycerin effects

relaxes the muscular walls of coronary arteries and veins
results in less blood returning to the heart
decreases blood pressure
relaxes arteries throughout the body
often causes a mild headache after administration

ways to give nitroglycerin

sublingual
metered-dosed spray
IV

epinephrine

a substance produced by the body (adrenaline)the main hormone that controls the body's fight or flight response
and a drug that increases pulse rate and blood pressure; it is the drug of choice for anaphylactic
primarily given IM

trade name

the brand name a manufacturer gives a medication; it is capitalized

oral glucose

a simply sugar that is readily absorbed in the blood stream

mucosal atomizer device (MAD)

a device that is used to change liquid medication into a spray and push it into the nostril

oxygen

a gas that all cells need for metabolism; the heart and brain especially cannot function without it

medication

a chemical substance used to treat or prevent diseases, pain

generic name

the original chemical name of a medication (in contrast with one of its "trade names"); the name is not capitalized

polypharmacy

simultaneous use of multiply medications as typically seen in elderly patients

sorbitol

a complex sugar
activated charcoal is frequently suspended in sorbitol
when suspended in activated charcoal it has a laxative effect / facilitates movement through the digestive system
may sweeten the flavor of activated charcoal

A 37-year-old male is found unconscious in his car. His airway is patent and his respirations are rapid and labored. As you and your partner are assessing and treating the patient, a police officer hands you a medication named Alupent, which he found in the backseat of the patient's car. This medication suggests that the patient has a history of:

asthma

A 31-year-old female is experiencing an acute asthma attack. She is conscious and alert, but in obvious respiratory distress. After assisting her with her prescribed MDI, you should:

reassess the patient and document her response to the medication

After taking diphendydramine (Benadryl) for an allergic reaction, a person begins experiencing drowsiness and a dry mouth. These findings are an example of a

side effect

Which of the following is an example of a brand (trade) name of a drug?
A. Tylenol
B. nitroglycerin
C. furosemide
D. ibuprofen

A. Tylenol

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of epinephrine?
A. decreases heart rate and blood pressure
B. secreted naturally by the adrenal glands
C. dilates passages in the lungs
D. constricts blood vessels

A. decreases heart rate and blood pressure

Which of the following is the MOST rapidly acting medication administration route?
A. intravenous (IV)
B. subcutaneous (SC)
C. intramuscular (IM)
D. sublingual (SL)

A. intravenous (IV)

How is nitroglycerin usually given by the EMT?

SL

Advil, Nuprin, and Motrin are brand (trade) names for the generic medication

ibuprofen

You are treating a 45-year-old woman who was stung by a hornet and has a rash. She tells you that she is allergic to hornets and has her own epinephrine auto-injector. She also tells you that she takes medication for hypertension. Her breath sounds do not reveal any wheezing, her breathing is unlabored, and her blood pressure is 154/94 mm Hg. What should you do if you are not able to make contact with medical control?

Give her oxygen, transport her to the hospital, and monitor her condition en route

What would be of the MOST appropriate route to use in an unconscious patient when intravenous access cannot be obtained

IO

What medication form does oral glucose come in?

gel

You are dispatched to a state park for a young female experiencing an allergic reaction. Your assessment reveals that her breathing is severely labored and her blood pressure is very low. You carry epinephrine auto-injectors on your ambulance and have been trained and approved by your medical director to administer them. As your partner gives the patient high-flow oxygen, you attempt to contact medical control but do not have a signal from your cell phone. You should:

administer epinephrine to the patient, begin immediate transport, and attempt to contact medical control en route to the hospital

When assessing an elderly male who complains of nausea and generalized weakness, you find that he takes simvastatin (Vytorin) and clopidogrel (Plavix). This medication regimen suggests a history of

cardiovascular disease

You arrive at a residence approximately 20 minutes after a 7-year-old boy, who weighs 22 kg, ingested a bottle of Advil. He is conscious and alert and has stable vital signs. Medical control orders you to administer activated charcoal and oxygen and then transport the child at once. The appropriate maximum dose of activated charcoal for this child is:

44g

Activated charcoal is an example of a

suspension

With the flowmeter set at 6 L/min, the nasal cannula will deliver up to _______ oxygen.

44%

Medications encased in a gelatin shell taken by mouth are called

capsule

You are treating a middle-aged man with chest discomfort. He has a history of three previous heart attacks and takes nitroglycerin as needed for chest pain. You have standing orders to administer aspirin to patients with suspected cardiac-related chest pain or discomfort. While your partner is preparing to give oxygen to the patient, you should:

confirm that the patient is not allergic to aspirin, give him the appropriate dose of aspirin, and document the time and dose given

An EMT may administer aspirin to a patient if

authorization from medical control has been obtained.

The __________ of a medication usually dictates the route by which it will be administered.

form

When given to patients with cardiac-related chest pain, nitroglycerin:

relaxes the walls of the coronary arteries

Activated charcoal is frequently suspended in sorbitol, a complex sugar that:
A. significantly slows the process of digestion.
B. binds to any chemicals that are in the stomach.
C. facilitates movement through the digestive system.
D. disguises the unpleasant taste of the activated charcoal.

C. facilitates movement through the digestive system.

While assisting a paramedic in the attempted resuscitation of a 55-year-old male in cardiac arrest, you should expect the paramedic to:
A. administer drugs via the IV route to achieve the fastest effect.
B. give the patient nitroglycerin to increase his blood pressure.
C. withhold drug therapy until an intraosseous catheter is in place.
D. give the patient activated charcoal to rule out a drug overdose.

A. administer drugs via the IV route to achieve the fastest effect.

Which medication route delivers a drug through the skin over an extended period of time, such as a nitroglycerin or nicotine patch

transcutaneous

A 62-year-old male presents with crushing chest pain, which he describes as being the same kind of pain that he had with a previous heart attack. He has prescribed nitroglycerin but states that he has not taken any. After administering 100% oxygen and contacting medical control, you should:

assist him with his nitroglycerin unless his systolic blood pressure is less than 100 mm Hg

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