one of the cells that take part in the formation of the body, becoming differentiated into the various tissues, organs, etc.
an abnormality characterized by the presence of an additional chromosome to the normal diploid number.
A chromosome having no homologue, especially an unpaired X-chromosome.
the first stage of mitosis or meiosis in eukaryotic cell division, during which the nuclear envelope breaks down and strands of chromatin form into chromosomes. Use prophase in a Sentence See images of prophase Search prophase on the Web Origin:
The stage of mitosis and meiosis, following prophase and preceding anaphase, during which the chromosomes are aligned along the metaphase plate.
the stage in mitosis or meiosis following metaphase in which the daughter chromosomes move away from each other to opposite ends of the cell.
the final stage of meiosis or mitosis, in which the separated chromosomes reach the opposite poles of the dividing cell and the nuclei of the daughter cells form around the two sets of chromosomes.
(in plant cells) a plate that develops at the midpoint between the two groups of chromosomes in a dividing cell and that is involved in forming the wall between the two new daughter cells.
the failure of chromosomes to separate and segregate into daughter cells at division.
a mature sexual reproductive cell, as a sperm or egg, that unites with another cell to form a new organism.
A method of asexual reproduction that involves the splitting of a parent cell into two approximately equal parts.
the basic physical unit of heredity; a linear sequence of nucleotides along a segment of DNA that provides the coded instructions for synthesis of RNA, which, when translated into protein, leads to the expression of hereditary character.
A threadlike linear strand of DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that carries the genes and functions in the transmission of hereditary information.
one of two identical chromosomal strands into which a chromosome splits longitudinally preparatory to cell division.
a specialized structure on the chromosome, appearing during cell division as the constricted central region where the two chromatids are held together and form an X shape.
one of a pair of chromosomes that match up at meiosis and are identical in morphology and arrangement; a chromosome with the same gene sequence as another, each derived from one parent
A cell that contains two haploid sets of chromosomes.
an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes, ordinarily half the normal diploid number.
The cell that results from the fusion of gametes; a fertilized egg.
Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
a chromosome, differing in shape or function from other chromosomes, that determines the sex of an individual.
the chromosomes of a cell, usually displayed as a systematized arrangement of chromosome pairs in descending order of size.
the cycle of growth and asexual reproduction of a cell, consisting of interphase followed in actively dividing cells by prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
A period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during which the cell grows, copies its DNA, and synthesizes proteins.
the usual method of cell division, characterized typically by the resolving of the chromatin of the nucleus into a threadlike form, which condenses into chromosomes, each of which separates longitudinally into two parts, one part of each chromosome being retained in each of two new cells resulting from the original cell.
the division of the cell cytoplasm that usually follows mitotic or meiotic division of the nucleus.
A tumor in which the cells begin dividing at an uncontrolled rate and become invasive.
A network of microtubules that forms during mitosis and moves chromatids to the poles.