2. What are the three levels of understanding?
The three levels of understanding are description, prediction and control.
1. Description involves a collection of observations including facts that are regarding the observed occurrences. The observations can then be quantified, classified and examined. This leads to creating hypotheses for further research.
2. Prediction is the ability to view the consistent results from multiple observations and seeing two events that have a correlation, or change together. This can lead to the study of causal relationships between two observed events.
3. Control derives from scientific findings that alter our world with new technology. With the ability to predict and prepare in science, this allows for a level of control, vital to the progress of science.
3. Why is it wrong to assume correlated variables are causally related in some way?
When correlated variables are related they first need to be manipulated in an experiment that tests the manipulation of variables. This way you are able to determine if other variables outside of the two correlated variables is causing the change in the dependent variable.
4. Define "functional relations".
Functional relations are a result of controlled experiments. The experiment will show a change in the dependent variable consistently as a result of changes or manipulations of the independent variable. One example of functional relations would be a child who receives negative attention as a result of tantrum behavior. As their tantrum behavior increases or escalates, the amount of attention they receive increases. A second example of a functional relation is the increased amount of exposure to tobacco, as in smoking cigarettes, consistently raises the likelihood of contracting cancer and diseases of the lungs and mouth.
5. All scientists engage in similar behaviors when studying scientifically. List each "attitude" (or behavior) of science,
The attitudes scientists have in common include determinism, empiricism, experimentation, replication, parsimony and philosophic doubt. Determinism includes the attitude where scientists believe the world is a lawful place, in which every behavior or event is a consequence of other events. For example, educators implementing methods in Applied Behavior Analysis analyze the antecedents and consequences of a student's behavior, and therefore seek to change antecedents and/or consequences in order to change the behavior. Empiricism values observing in an objective manner. Personal attitudes and beliefs are not evident in the attitude of a scientist; the scientist must be able to observe a child pinching their teacher, without evocation of emotion in order to properly change the undesirable behavior. Experimentation is the following attitude of a scientist, where once a functional relation is observed the researcher then can further analyze this relationship through experimentation. The next attitude is replication. Replication is simply the ability to replicate an experiment and achieve the same results as previous studies. If a study is replicated and the results vary, the study is not sound. Additionally, the researchers must be exact in describing the experiment, enabling future researchers to replicate the study. Parsimony is additionally as important, where it is vital for scientists to rule out simple answers to the results of a study or phenomena before looking further into more complicated explanations. The last attitude, philosophic doubt, encourages scientists to constantly doubt the rules of the world and known facts. This enables scientists to constantly be open to learning and researching.
6. What is determinism?
The ability to view the world with determinism is vital to viewing functional relations, which therefore enables the behavior analyst to improve or change behavior. Without this view, the title of being a behavior analyst would be obsolete, since improving behavior is the basis of this position.
7. What is empiricism?
Empiricism requires behavior analysts to view the world as lawful with events occurring as a direct result of other events, however pseudoscientific bases knowledge on subjective, not lawful components such as opinion, authority and speculation.
8. Why is it important to conduct experiments on variables that are correlated?
It is vital to examine functional relations in correlations to identify whether the dependent variable changes in relationship to other variables or the independent variable.
9. What does it mean to "conduct" an experiment?
In order to conduct an experiment the dependent variable must be tested against several independent variables independent from each other.
10. What is parsimony?
The practice of ruling out simple, logical explanations, experimentally or conceptually, before considering more complex or abstract explanations.
11. What is philosophic doubt?
An attitude that the truthfulness and validity of all scientific of all scientific theory and knowledge should be continually questioned.
12. Name the three branches of Behavior Analysis.
1. Behaviorism: the philosophy of the science of behavior
2. Experimental analysis of behavior: researching the functional relations between variables and behavior.
3. Applied behavior analysis: Developing technology for improving behavior
13. With respect to the experimental analysis of behavior, know these things:
a. What is the difference between respondent and operant behavior,
b. What does the term "operant" mean;
a. -Respondent behavior is an involuntary reflex, a consequence as a result of a stimulus, such as in Pavlov's study with dogs.
-Operant behavior: behavior occurs as a result of consequences, which previously occurred. For instance, many adults learn when they go to work they receive a paycheck, which in turn can increase the likelihood of the adult going to work.
b. Operant: a result of a previously learned consequence that occurs after a behavior.
Definition of hypothetical constructs and give examples;
An assumed and unobserved event or process, which can not be tested in an experiment. For instance, creating a hypothetical idea as to why another person is angry with you. The ideas are not fact or observable, they are merely an idea.
15. List the terms of the "3-term contingency" and explain how it is different from Watson's S-R psychology and Pavlov's study of reflexive behavior.
The three-term contingency describes behaviors as having an antecedent, behavior, and then a consequence. This differs significantly from Watson and Pavlov's description of behavior as only requiring the stimulus to elicit a behavior. However the three-term contingency states behavior is shaped by the consequences that follow the behavior.
16. Define and describe of the experimental analysis of behavior;
Experimental Analysis of Behavior conducts studies on behavior and its' relation to the environment. The independent variable is manipulated to determine the correlation to behavior, the dependent variable. It also measures the learned responses from the consequences of behavior.
17. Describe the difference between radical behaviorism, mentalism and methodological behaviorism.
Mentalism's explanation of behavior describes private events as mostly causing and shaping behavior. Radical behaviorism seeks to understand not only observable human behavior, but also the private events that occur including feelings and mental processes, which all relate to the behavior of individuals. Methodological behaviorism views private events as not parts of science.
18. List, define, and describe the "Defining characteristics" of ABA presented by Cooper, et al.
-Applied: commitment to improving socially significant behaviors.
-Behavioral: measures the specific behavior and describes the significance and reasons of changes in behavior.
-Analytic: analyzes the behavior and looks at the functional relations in variables.
-Technological: Every procedure and steps in a study must be written and described in order for the study to be replicated.
-Conceptually Systematic: Any procedures and methods used to change behavior are based on the principles of behavior based on research.
-Effective: The behavioral interventions used must present positive results in changing or improving behavior.
-Generality: The behavior changes spread to other behaviors, last over a period of time and transfer to other environments.
19. Know the definition of "applied behavior analysis" offered by Cooper, et al.
The science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied systematically to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for behavior change.
1. What is the definition of "behavior"?
Johnston and Pennypacker's definition of behavior describes behavior as the interaction a person has with the environment. This requires movement in a way that affects or relates to the environment, such as a person stomping their feet.
2. Explain temporal locus, temporal extent, and repeatability.
• Temporal locus is when the behavior occurs, such as "Billy hit his teacher at 12:05pm."
• Temporal extent is how long the behavior occurred, for instance, "Billy cried for four minutes."
• Repeatability is how often the behavior occurred: "Billy hit his teacher four times in two minutes."
3. Explain the difference between behavior and response.
A response is an instance or occurrence. For instance, the brain sends signals to the arm to move it upwards. The arm then responds to this signal in order to move upwards. The movement of the arm, interacting with the environment is the behavior, as a result of a response.
4. Define "stimulus" in the context of the environment
A stimulus is some type of change in energy that signals receptor cells in our bodies.
5. Explain "respondent" behavior, including: (a) how is it different from operant, (b)what is the role of antecedents, (c) what is the role of consequences, (d) define "elicit" and "reflex" and
(e) respondent conditioning.
A respondent behavior is a behavior that occurs in response to a stimulus or antecedent.
a. There is no other event that instigates the behavior, whereas in operant responses, the behavior occurs as a result of previously learned consequences that follow the behavior.
b. The antecedent holds the responsibility of presenting a behavior, however the consequence in respondent behavior does not exist.
c. Consequences are not a part of respondent behavior.
d. Elicit: to draw something out
Reflex: often a natural occurrence where a stimulus elicits a response, without any consequences.
e. Respondent conditioning: when a stimulus is learned to elicit a response.
7. Define a contingency
Contingency means the dependency or relationship between variables and operant behavior.
1. List the three dimensions of measurement of behavior and define each
-Repeatability: "(also called accountability)" Behavior can be counted. Responses can occur repeatedly throughout time.
-Temporal Extent: Every behavior occurs for some duration in time and it can be measured.
-Temporal Locus: All behavior occurs at a point in time in relation to other events. Behavior occurs, which then enables it to be measured.
2. What is the difference between temporal dimension and repeatability dimension of behavior?
The temporal dimensions are measures of time, such as the point in time and duration of the behavior, whereas repeatability relates to the frequency of the behavior. Event recording measures the repeatability of a behavior, and duration recording measures temporal extent.
3. What is a derivative measure?
Derivative measures are made up of percentage and trials-to-criterion. These two types of data derive from previous quantities or results, of behaviors, such as the rate and frequency of behaviors measured.
4. What are some devices that can be used to event recording?
Wrist, Hand-tally digital and abacus wrist and shoestring counters can all be used for event recording. Additionally simpler methods such as a pocket calculator or marking on masking tape.
5. Name the advantages and potential disadvantage/considerations of event recording.
Event recording is extremely easy for almost everyone to use to measure behaviors. However behaviors, which do not exhibit a specific beginning and end to the behavior, such as humming, are extremely difficult to measure instances in event recording. Additionally, when behaviors are high frequency, it can be difficult to measure such high instances of behavior such as rapid talking or tapping. Another disadvantage would be if the behavior's duration is extended, such as "staying on task", event recording would not be an accurate measure of recording in this instance.
6. Define Time Sampling
"Time sampling is a variety of methods for observing and recording behavior during intervals or specific moments in time."
7. For interval recording
a. What is the difference between partial and whole interval?
b. If there are multiple instances of behavior within an interval, how many notations do you make?
c. Which gives the data recorder the most "valid" or "accurate" count - smaller intervals or larger intervals?
d. What does the data recorder report after an interval recording session?
a. What is the difference between partial and whole interval? Whole interval recording sets a predetermined amount of time (interval) and measures how many instances of the behavior occurred during that time period. Whereas partial interval recording only measures whether a behavior occurred in the interval, not the frequency of the behavior. In partial interval, if the behavior occurs more than once, the behavior is only recorded once, as having occurred during the time interval.
b. How many notations do you wish to make within an interval, how many notations do you make? It depends on what type of recording you are doing. If you are doing whole interval recording, then every occurance should be noted. Contrarily, partial interval recording requires only one notation per interval, if the behavior occurred.
d. Which gives the data recorder the most "valid" or "accurate" count - smaller intervals or larger intervals? The smaller intervals give the data recorder the most accurate depiction of the behavior.
e. What does the data recorder report after an interval recording session?
The data recorder reports the rate at which the behavior occurred.
1. What is the purpose of behavioral assessment?
Linehan states the purpose of behavioral assessment: "To figure out what the client's problem is and how to change it for the better."
-behaviors to change
-maintenance and generalization factors
2. What are the four methods for obtaining assessment information
3. Standardized Tests
4. Direct Observation
5. Ecological assessment: Includes many factors influencing behavior.
4. What is reactivity?
Reactivity is the effect on the person's behavior (increase/decrease) when an assessment is being conducted
5. What is a "Behavioral Cusp?
The behavioral cusp refers to the further changes that occur beyond the target behavior changes. For example, when a baby learns to crawl, the target behavior of learning to crawl is a change, however it also opens up a new world for the baby, allowing them to explore a new environment and expand their gross motor skills as well.
6. What is "pivotal behavior" is it different from a behavioral cusp?
Pivotal behavior is described as the ability to respond to various cues however, a behavioral cusp allows for opportunities to learn from new stimuli by changing socially significant behavior. A behavioral cusp focuses on teaching a behavior to expand the environment from which to learn from for the child. Whereas a pivotal behavior gives the child a skill they are able to generalize to help them in that skill across environments.
9. Describe variable and equal interval time sampling procedures.
Variable interval time sampling procedures: the observer records whether the target behavior occurred at any time during the interval and reports it as a percentage of total intervals in which the target behavior was scored. Equal interval time sampling procedures measure the behavior at specified times, such as at the end of the interval.
10. What is an Artifact?
An artifact occurs when it seems as though a behavior exists due to the method of measurement. For example, overestimation and underestimation often occur with whole or partial interval measurements; therefore it appears as though a behavior is nonexistent, or extremely apparent, when it is only as a result of the method of measurement.
11. What is a "permanent product"
"A permanent product is a change in the environment produced by a behavior that lasts long enough for measurement to take place." Examples of a permanent product include, papers written by Skinner have had a lasting effect on the environment, drawing graffiti in a public setting or recycling.
12. List at least four advantages of permanent product data.
1.The practitioner is free to do other tasks.
2. Makes possible measurement of some behaviors that occur at inconvenient or inaccessible times and place.
3. Facilitates data collection for interobserver agreement and treatment integrity.
4. Enables measurement of complex behaviors and multiple response classes.
1. Describe the 3 indicators of "trustworthy" measurement - validity, accuracy, and reliability. Be able to describe the differences and what each one measures, and - most importantly - how do we ensure our data are valid, accurate, and reliable?
-Validity: when data directly measures an intended target behavior, therefore relevant to the behavior under investigation. Additionally, was the data that was collected directly measured, justifiable, measured by dimension (rate/duration) and the data truly reflects the individual's behavior (the data was taken at appropriate times and conditions most pertinent to the behavior).
-Accuracy: Data is accurate when the data is equivalent to the true values of the event.
-Reliability: Data must be able to be replicated with similar data results. The closer the values are to the original data, the higher the reliability.
2. Define and distinguish between direct and indirect measurement. When do we use each? What are some procedures that provide direct and indirect measurement?
-Direct measurement is used when the actual behavior is what is being measured. Direct measurement is the preferred measurement method, especially in Applied Behavior Analysis. It results in more valid data and is often used during direct observation.
-Indirect Measurement: The measurement is different from the actual behavior that occurred. Indirect measures often require the data collector to infer what occurred. Often indirect measurement is used during measurement of affective or private events, or when researchers are unable to directly observe the target behavior.
3. Describe the difference between continuous recording and sampling recording. Give examples of each, and advantages and disadvantages. How do we do each type of recording?
-Continuous recording records every instance of the target behavior. Contrarily, sampling recording, or discontinuous measurement is often interval data collection, where some instances of the target behavior will not be recorded. Continuous recording would require an observer to mark every target behavior, for instance, every time a child went to the restroom; Whereas discontinuous measurement would mark every instance during the specified, for example, every 30 seconds, if the child was in the restroom.
-There are several advantages and disadvantages to both types of measurement. With continuous measurement it gives a very valid picture of the actual target behavior, however it is more demanding on the observer to measure every instance. In order to gather continuous data, the observer cannot have any other responsibilities, only to watch the individual.
-When taking sampling recording, the observer has more freedom, for instance a teacher may prefer this method so he may teach in between interval recording. Additionally, if a teacher or observer must observe and take data on several students, interval recording would be used. However, sampling recording often presents artifact data and may not be valid.
4. Name the three threats to measurement accuracy and reliability. Define each, give examples of each, and summarize how we can minimize these threats.
-Poorly Designed Measurement System: When measurement systems are unorganized and difficult to use, this can reduce the accuracy and reliability of data collection. For example, if a teacher is taking data on five different data sheets, her data may not be as accurate as having one data sheet for data collection. Simple to use measurement systems, reduction of individuals being observed simultaneously and decreasing the duration of the sessions for observation can all help the data collector to have accurate and reliable findings.
-Inadequate Observer Training: When observers are inadequately trained, this can result in a threat to accuracy and reliability of their data collection. The observers must be able to discriminate between the presence or lack of target behavior and how to record that (using the correct symbols). For example, if an observer is inadequately trained, they may record an incorrect response as correct if they use the incorrect symbol, which completely alters the results and accuracy of the data collection. For these reasons it is vital observers are given preliminary exams prior to becoming a data collector to analyze whether that individual would be able to sufficiently take data. Additionally, before the observer is allowed to take data in actual ABA settings, they should be required to meet a certain criteria, such as taking data with 90% accuracy over several trials.
-Unintended Influences on Observers: Observer expectation and observer reactivity can affect the accuracy and reliability of data collected. For instance, if the teacher or observer expects the target behavior should be successful while using a visual schedule with the student, this may result in less recording of screaming behavior, as the teacher expects the student will be doing better with this format. Additionally, when observers are under the impression they are being monitored or that others will be taking data along with them, the observer may react and score how they believe the supervisor, for instance, would take data. It is essential to use naïve observers in order to reduce measurement bias, or to have data taken from another room using video for instance, to reduce observer reactivity.
5. How do we maximize the quality of observers who are taking our data?
-By providing sufficient training for data collectors, organizing an excellent measurement and data system and giving frequent and helpful retraining sessions to remind observers the importance and methods of taking accurate, reliable and valid data.
6. Describe how we assess the accuracy and reliability of data, including the differences between obtained and true values of data. Describe how, if you can, look at data and know whether those data are obtained or true or both?
-The observed values of data when compared with the true values determine the accuracy of the data. The reliability is higher when the data is consistent and replicable. The obtained values of data may not match up with the true values, or correct data of the behavior. Obtained data often matches the true value when the data collector utilizes direct observation as a means to collect data.
7. Define interobserver agreement
-IOA is when two data collectors independently report the exact same data during the same target behavior measurement. It is vital to measurement in order to determine the competence of new data collectors, detect observer drift, increase confidence that the target behavior was clear and the measurement system was not too difficult to utilize and increases confidence that changes in the data is due to behavior changes, not various observers.
8. List the requisites for obtaining valid IOA measures.
-Observers must use the same measurement system: Data collectors must use "the same definitions of the target behavior, observation procedures and codes and measurement devices."
-Observers must measure the same events: Data collectors must begin and end their observation at the same time. Additionally, both data collectors must take data from the same sample (same audiotape or video).
-Observers must be independent: Both data collectors (or more) must be able to take their data without being influenced by the other data collector. For instance, they must not be able to view the data the other collector is taking in order for the data to be completely reflecting what is actually occurring in the target behavior.
9. Summarize the considerations in selecting, obtaining, and reporting IAO information, including how often IOA should be collected, the methods to use when collecting IOA data, and the acceptable levels of IOA.
-IOA should be assessed during each phase of study with variation in days and settings in order to ensure high IOA within various target behaviors and environments. With observers that are inexperienced or studies with high complexity, IOA assessments should occur more often in order to ensure high confidence in the data results. The higher IOA rates, the more accurate the data will be; usually an agreement of 80% or higher is acceptable for an acceptable rate of IOA. When IOA should be collected as graph, narrative or in a table format including the mean and range of IOA agreement.
1. Define the terms "data" and "Graph".
• Data: "The results of measurement, usually in quantifiable form; in applied behavior analysis, it refers to measures of some quantifiable dimension of a behavior."
• Graph: "A visual format for displaying data; reveals relations among and between a series of measurements and relevant variables."
2. Cite a minimum of four benefits of graphically displayed data.
a. Plotting each measure of behavior on a graph right after the observational period provides the practitioner or researcher with immediate access to an ongoing visual record of the participant's behavior.
b. Direct and continual contact with the data in a readily analyzable format enables the researcher as well as the practitioner to explore interesting variations in behavior as they occur.
c. Graphs like statistical analyses of behavior change are judgmental aids: devices that help the practitioner or experimenter interpret the results of a study or treatment.
d. Visual analysis is a conservative method for determining the significance of behavior change.
e. In addition to their primary purpose of displaying relationships between behavior change (or lack thereof) and variables manipulated by the practitioner or back to the people whose behavior they represent.
3. Define line graph, its characteristics, and parts. If given a graph, be able to determine whether or not it represents a line graph.
a. A two dimensional area formed by the intersection of two perpendicular lines. Any point within the plane represents a specific relation between the two dimensions described by the intersecting lines.
4. If given a graph and asked to identify the different parts of a graph, be able to do so.
a. Abscissa: the horizontal axis, a straight horizontal line that most often represents the passage of time and the presence, absence and or value of the independent variable.
b. Ordinate: the vertical axis is a vertical line drawn upward from the left-hand end of the horizontal axis. It represents a range of values of the dependent variable or some quantifiable dimension of behavior.
c. Condition change lines: vertical lines drawn upward from the horizontal axis to show points in time at which changes in the iv occur.
d. Condition labels: in the form of single words or brief descriptive phrases, are printed along the top of the graph and parallel to the horizontal axis.
e. Data points: each data point represents a quantifiable measure of the target behavior recorded during a given observation period 2. And the time and/or experimental conditions under which that particular measurement was conducted.
f. Data Path: connecting successive data points within a given condition with a straight line creates a data path. It represents the level and trend of behavior between successive data points, and it is a primary focus of attention in the interpretation and analysis of graphed data.
g. Figure caption: concise statement that in combination with the axis and condition labels provides the reader with sufficient and informant to identify the iv's and dv's.
5. Give an example of a "multiple data path" graph, and describe how it differs from a simple line graph.
An example of a multiple data path would be the effects of intervention (independent variable) on biting and social interaction (dependent variable). Multiple data paths are able to measure the effects of the independent variable on multiple dependent variables.
1. Shows two or more dimensions of the same behavior
2. Two or more different behaviors
3. The same behavior under different and alternating experimental conditions
4. Changes in target behavior relative to the changing values of an iv
5. The behavior of two or more participants
6. Define bar graph, cumulative recorder, and semi logarithmic chart. For each, describe the components, the type of data for which the graph would best be used, and exactly how to plot data on the graph.
7. Describe how to determine whether a measured response is improving when looking at a cumulative graph.
The steeper the slope of the data path, the greater the response.
8. What is the rationale for having a logarithmic scale, as opposed to an equal-interval scale?
It permits assessments of proportional or relative rates of change.
9. Define the following terms: Variability, Level, and Trend. Be able to tell the difference between each.
a. Variability: The frequency and extent to which multiple measures of behavior yield different outcomes.
b. Level: The value on the vertical axis around which a series of behavioral measures converge.
c. Trend: The overall direction taken by a data path. It is described in terms of direction (increasing, decreasing, or zero trend), degree (gradual/steep) and the extent of variability of data points around the trend. Trend is used in predicting future measures of the behavior under unchanging conditions.
10. Differentiate between mean level line median level line, and split middle line of progress
a. Mean Level Line: Horizontal line drawn through a series of data points within a condition at that point on the vertical axis equaling the average value of the series of measures. With highly stable data paths, mean level lines pose no serious drawbacks. However, the less variability there is within a series of data points, the less need there is for a mean level line.
b. Median Level Line: Represents the most typical performance within a condition and is not so influenced by one or two measures that fall far outside the range of the remaining measures. It should be used to represent the central tendency of a series of data points that include several outliers, either high or low.
c. Split Middle Line: A line drawn through a series of graphed data points that shows the overall trend in the data; drawn through the intersections of the vertical and horizontal middles of each half of the charted data and then adjusted up or downs so that half of all the data points fall on or above and half fall on or below the line.
1. What is experimental control, why is it important and how is it demonstrated?
• Experimental control is achieved when a predictable change in behavior (DV) can be reliably produced by the systematic manipulation of some aspect of the person's environment (IV).
• Functional relations demonstrate experimental control.
• This allows behavior analysts to reliably alter behavior in meaningful ways.
2. Define internal validity and confounding variables.
• Internal Validity: Experiments that show convincingly that changes in behavior are a function of the IV and are not the result of uncontrolled or unknown variables are said to have a high degree of internal validity.
• Confounding Variables: Uncontrolled variables known or suspected to exert an influence on the DV.
3. What are the components of an experiment in applied behavior analysis?
a. At least one participant (subject).
b. At least one behavior (DV)
c. At least one setting
d. A system for measuring the behavior and ongoing visual analysis of the data
e. At least one treatment or intervention condition (IV)
f. Manipulations of the IV so that its effects on the DV if any can be detected (experimental design).
4. What is the difference between an independent variable and a dependent variable in an experiment?
a. The independent variable is the intervention or treatment method, whereas the dependent variable is what is being measured. The dependent behavior changes based on the independent variable.
5. What does a parametric analysis seek to accomplish?
a. Parametric analysis seeks to discover the differential effects of a range of values of the independent variable. This includes a study with several independent variables, or interventions, and determines the effect they have on behavior.
6. What is baseline logic? What are its three elements.
a. Baseline logic is a powerful form of experimental reasoning commonly used in behavior analysis.
i. Prediction: the anticipated outcome of a presently unknown or future measurement. Sufficient baseline data is required in order to predict outcomes of intervention methods and other independent variables.
ii. Verification: can be accomplished by demonstrating that the prior level of baseline responding would have remained unchanged had the IV not been introduced.
iii. Replication: repeating IV manipulations conducted previously in the study and obtaining similar outcomes.
7. Define "prediction" and give an example of it. Describe the importance of stability for prediction, and describe how many data points need to be taken before we can "predict" future patterns of behavior.
a. Prediction is the anticipated outcome of a presently unknown or future measurement.
b. Example: If a child has rates of kicking behavior without any intervention in ranges between 4-6 times daily, then on a graph after charting the amount of kicking daily, the researcher can confidently predict the pattern of behavior that would continue in the future.
c. If rates of behavior are not stable the researcher would be unable to confidently predict any scores or frequency for the future.
8. Define "verification". Give an example of it. If given data patterns, be able to accurately discriminate between patterns that allow and do not allow verification.
a. Verification can be accomplished by demonstrating that the prior level of baseline responding would have remained unchanged had the IV not been introduced. For example, if a child displays at baseline spitting behavior 4-6 times daily, then receives intervention and the frequency decreases to 0-1 times daily. Verification would require the intervention be withheld (baseline B) and the scores would need to increase similar to the initial baseline data. This would indicate the intervention as directly impacting the behavior.
9. Define "replication" and give an example.
a. Replication means repeating IV manipulations conducted previously in the study and obtaining similar outcomes. For example, when a child has had baseline and intervention data taken the same intervention is added again, resulting in the same scores.
i. Replicating behavior changes reduces the probability that a variable other thn the IV was responsible for the now twice-observed behavior change.
ii. Replication demonstrates the reliability of the behavior change; it can be made to happen again.
1. Describe the sequence of phases in the reversal design.
a. Three consecutive phases:
i. Initial baseline (A), the IV is absent
ii. Intervention (B), the IV is present
iii. Return to baseline (A), the IV is withdrawn (absent)
b. The logic of having this type of design allows researchers to view whether the IV has an effect on the DV.
2. Describe the different types of reversal designs.
a. A-B-A Design: A three-phase experimental design consisting of an initial baseline phase (A) until steady state responding is obtained, an intervention phase in which the treatment condition (B) is implemented until the behavior has changed and state responding is obtained, a return to baseline conditions (A) by withdrawing the independent variable to see whether responding "reverses" to levels observed in the initial baseline phase.
b. A-B-A-B Design: An experimental design consisting of (1) an initial baseline phase (A) until steady state responding (or counter therapeutic trend) is obtained, (2) an initial intervention phase in which the treatment variable (B) is implemented until the behavior changed and steady state responding is obtained, (3) a return to baseline conditions (A) by withdrawing the independent variable to see whether responding "reverses" to levels observed in the initial baseline phase, and (4) a second intervention phase (B) to see whether initial treatment effects are replicated.
3. Describe, contrast, and give examples of the variations of the ABAB design (repeated reversals, multiple treatment reversals, noncontingent reinforcement reversals, DRI and DRO reversals, and the BAB). If given an example and description, be able to accurately label the type of design it is.
a. Repeated Reversals: The most obvious variation of the ABAB reversal design is a simple extension where the IV is withdrawn and reintroduced a second time: ABABAB. Each additional presentation and withdrawal that reproduces previous effects on behavior increases the likelihood that the behavior changes are the result of manipulating the IV.
b. Multiple Treatment Reversals: Experiments that use reversal design to compare the effects of two or more experimental conditions to baseline and/or to one another (C,D notate the additional interventions) ABCACBC
c. Noncontingent Reinforcement Reversals: An experimental control technique that demonstrates the effects of reinforcement by using NC Reinforcement as a control condition instead of a no-condition, the stimulus change used as reinforcement in the reinforcement condition is presented on a fixed or variable time schedule independent of the subject's behavior. A higher level of responding during the reinforcement condition than during the NCR condition demonstrates that the changes in behavior are the result of contingent reinforcement not simply the presentation of or contact with the stimulus event.
d. DRI (/DRA) Reversals: An experimental technique that demonstrates the effects of reinforcement; it uses differential reinforcement of an incompatible or alternative behavior (DRI/DRA) as a control condition instead of a no-reinforcement (A) condition. During the DRI/DRA condition the stimulus change used as reinforcement in the reinforcement condition is presented contingent on occurrences of a specified behavior that is either incompatible with the target behavior or an alternative to the target behavior. A higher level of responding during the reinforcement condition than during the DRI/DRA condition demonstrates that the changes in behavior are the result of contingent reinforcement, not simply the presentation of or contact with the stimulus event.
e. DRO Reversals: An experimental technique for demonstrating the effects of reinforcement by using differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) as a control condition instead of a no-reinforcement (baseline condition). During the DRO condition the stimulus change used as reinforcement in the reinforcement condition is presented contingent on the absence of the target behavior for a specified time period. A higher level of responding during the reinforcement condition that during the DRO condition demonstrates that the changes in behavior are the result of contingent reinforcement, not simply the presentation of or contact with the stimulus event.
f. BAB: A three-phase experimental design that begins with the treatment condition. After steady state responding has been obtained during the initial treatment phase (B), the treatment variable is withdrawn (A) to see whether responding changes in the absence of the IV. The treatment variable is then reintroduced (B) in an attempt to recapture the level of responding obtained during the first treatment phase.
4. Define "sequence effects" and describe the importance of this threat to internal validity
a. Sequence effects: are the effects on a subject's behavior in a given condition that are the result of the subject's experience with a prior condition.
5. Describe some behavior for which the reversal designs might be appropriate, and other behavior for which these designs would not be appropriate.
a. Reversal designs would be appropriate for intervention that attempts to decrease behaviors such as the subject throwing his paper onto the floor every time he is done with his assignment.
b. Reversal designs would be inappropriate for SIB's since introducing a treatment that reduces SIB's, then removing that the treatment could result in an unsafe environment for the subject and would be unethical. Additionally, teaching the child during intervention how to add two single digit numbers would be inappropriate for reversal design. The skill could become acquired, therefore in the second baseline the data is not revealing the true nature of the experiment.
6. Briefly describe three potential disadvantages of the reversal designs.
a. Withdrawing an apparently effective intervention to demonstrate a functional relationship: ethical issues
b. Irreversibility: the level of behavior observed at an earlier phase cannot be reproduced by withdrawing the intervention: skill training and reading
c. Dangerous behaviors: Why?
i. We don't want to return to baseline with SIB behaviors to bring back dangerous behaviors. Not really necessary or ethical. Safety for the child is most important.
d. Behavior that is U such as: Why? Learned behaviors (remove intervention, but skill has been learned and won't disappear)
7. Define alternating treatment designs, give examples, and be able to accurately identify them if given a graph.
a. Alternating treatment designs: characterized by the rapid alteration of two or more distinct treatments while their effects on the target behavior are measured. There are three ways to implement alternating designs: alternating across daily sessions, administering in separate sessions in the same day and implementation both interventions during a portion of the same session.
8. Describe how to assess experimental control for each behavior using an alternating treatments design.
1. Determined by visual inspection of the data
2. Differences between or among the data paths
3. Different levels of responding are predictably and reliably produced by the presence of the different treatments
4. When the data paths show no overlap with each other and either stable levels or opposing trends we have a demonstration of experimental control
5. (Treatments affect DV differently)
1. For the multiple baseline design, describe the general sequence of events, and the logic behind why it permits a demonstration of a functional relation
• After collecting initial baseline data simultaneously across two or more behaviors, settings or people, the behavior analyst then applies the treatment variable sequentially across these behaviors, settings or people and notes the effects. A functional relation are demonstrated when the behaviors change from a steady state baseline to a new steady state after the introduction of the IV is applied.
2. Describe what types of behaviors you should use a multiple baseline design to address.
• When the target behavior is likely to be irreversible
• When it is undesirable, impractical or unethical to reverse conditions
3. State the minimum number of baselines recommended for proof of a functional relationship when using this design.
minimally 3. We want more but can see trend up or down with three to five data points
4. Summarize the assumptions and procedural guidelines to consider when planning multiple baseline designs.
• Select independent, yet functionally similar, baselines: The experimenter must make two, at times seemingly contradictory, assumptions about the behaviors targeted for analysis in a multiple baseline design. The behaviors must be independent of one another yet share enough similarity that each will change when the IV is applied to it.
• Select concurrent and plausibly related multiple baselines: the two behaviors must be measured concurrently and all of the relevant variables that influence one behavior must have an opportunity to influence the other behavior.
• Do not apply the IV to the next behavior too soon: For verification to occur in a multiple baseline design, it must be established clearly that as the IV is applied to one behavior and change is noted, little or no change is observed in the other, as yet-untreated behaviors.
• Vary significantly the lengths of multiple baselines: Generally, the more the baseline phases in a multiple baseline design differ in length from one another, the stronger the design will be.
• Intervene on the most stable baseline first: When intervention must begin before stability is evident across each tier of the design, the IV should be applied to the behavior, setting or subject that shows the most stable level of baseline responding.
5. Describe multiple probe and delayed multiple baseline designs.
• Multiple probe designs: effective for evaluating the effects of instruction on skill sequences in which it is highly unlikely that the subject's performance on later steps in the sequence can improve without instruction or mastery of the earlier steps in the chain. The multiple probe design is also appropriate for situations in which prolonged baseline measurement may prove reactive, impractical or too costly. Intermittent measurements (or probes) are taken on all of the behaviors in the design at the outset of the experiment. Thereafter, probes are taken each time the subject has achieved mastery of one of the behaviors or skills in the sequence. Just prior to instruction on each behavior, a series of true baseline measures are taken until stability is achieved.
• Delayed multiple baseline design: provides an analytic tactic in situations in which a. a planned reversal design is no longer desirable or possible; b. limited resources preclude a full-scale multiple baseline design or c. a new behavior, setting, or subject appropriate for a multiple baseline analysis becomes available. In this design, baseline measurement of subsequent behaviors is begun sometime after baseline measurement was begun on earlier behaviors in the design. Only baselines begun while earlier behaviors in the design are still under baseline conditions can be used to verify predictions made for the earlier behaviors.
6. Describe some advantages and limitations of the multiple baseline design.
i. It does not require withdrawing a seemingly effective treatment to demonstrate experimental control.
ii. More socially acceptable
iii. Complements the usual practice of many practitioners whose goal is to develop multiple behavior changes.
iv. Helps children in various settings.
i. It may not allow a demonstration of experimental control even though a functional relation exists between the IV and the behaviors to which it is applied.
ii. Weaker method for showing experimental control than the reversal design. (Requires inferring from the lack of change in other behaviors).
iii. Provides more information about the effectiveness of the treatment variable than it does about the function of any particular target behavior.
7. For the changing criterion design, explain its procedural components, and the type(s) of behaviors for which it could be used.
• The changing criterion design can be used to evaluate the effects of a treatment on the gradual or stepwise improvement of a behavior already in the subject's repertoire.
• After stable baseline responding has been achieved, the first treatment phase is begun, in which reinforcement (or punishment) is usually contingent on the subject's performing at a specified level (criterion). The design entails a series of treatment phases, each requiring an improved level of performance over the previous phase. Experimental control is demonstrated in the changing criterion design when the subject's behavior closely conforms to the gradually changing criteria.
8. Describe the logic behind the changing criterion design, and explain how it demonstrates a functional relation.
i. The length of phases: each phase must be long enough to achieve stable responding. Must change to the level required by each new criterion in a predictable fashion and conform to the new criterion for as long as it is in effect.
ii. The magnitude of criterion changes: when changes in the target behavior occur not only at the time a new criterion is implemented but also to the level specified by the new criterion, the probability of a functional relation is strengthened.
iii. The number of criterion changes: In general, the more times the target behavior changes to meet new criteria, the more convincing the demonstration of experimental control is.
• The believability of the changing criterion design is enhanced if a previous criterion is reinstated and the subject's behavior reverses to the level previously observed under that criterion.
1. Describe the concern behavior analysts (and others) have about the traditional group designs.
• The data from a group may not reveal the true nature of improvements or decreases in behavior of individuals.
• It can mask variability in the data. The variability, some researchers believe, can be controlled by statistical manipulations is untrue.
• The ability for intrasubject replication is unavailable for researchers, therefore limiting the ability to state and analyze functional relations for individuals.
2. Restate the definition of internal validity.
• When an experiment shows a stable and sure functional relation between the independent and dependent variable(s).
3. State the four elements of an experiment that could be related to internal validity issues.
4. For each of the four elements related to internal validity, define, give examples of potential internal validity threats related to this element, and describe some ways of minimizing the influence of this element on the outcome of an experiment.
See study guide 10
5. Be able to define double-blind control, treatment integrity, treatment drift, and procedural reliability. Know examples of each.
• Double-blind control: When neither the subject(s) nor the observers know whether the IV is present or absent from session to session.
i. Example: In a study where the effects of a social anxiety reliever medication is given to individuals neither the subjects nor individuals giving medication know whether it is medication or a placebo.
• Treatment integrity: The extent to which the IV is applied exactly as planned/described and no other unplanned variables are administered inadvertently along with the planned treatment.
i. Example: The researchers write and describe a planned study and their study goes along successfully without additional confounds/variables.
• Treatment drift: the application of the IV during later phases of an experiment differs from the way it was applied at the outset of the study.
i. Example: A teacher is giving instruction for a new reading methodology to her students. Towards the end of the study the teacher only uses parts of the methodology she believes are useful, rather than the entire program.
• Procedural reliability: the degree to which the intervention is implemented/planned-written.
i. Whether the intervention is given according to the plan researchers set, such as instruction, phases and appropriately addressing confounds.
6. Define external validity and describe how it is different from internal validity. If given an example, be able to accurately label it as illustrating either internal or external validity.
• While internal validity addresses the functional relation between the IV and DV, external validity is present when that functional relation can be found reliable and socially valid in a given experiment under different conditions. It asks questions such as:
i. Will this same treatment be as effective if it is applied to other behaviors?
ii. Will the procedure continue to work if it is changed in some way (different time of day, another person, different schedule)?
iii. Will it work in a setting different from the original experiment?
iv. Will it work with participants of all ages, backgrounds and repertories.
7. Define, describe, and contrast the different types of replication. Give examples of each type.
• Direct Replication: the researcher makes every effort to duplicate exactly the conditions of an earlier experiment.
i. Intrasubject direct replication: same subject is used.
ii. Intersubject direct replication: same experiment with different, though similar subjects. This primarily determines the extent to which research findings have generality across subjects.
iii. Example: Researchers replicate a study which provided positive reinforcement for children contingent on homework completion. In direct replication with Intrasubject, the researchers would use the same children in the study, whereas Intersubject would have different, though similar, children in their study.
• Systematic Replication: the researcher purposefully varies one or more aspects of an earlier experiment. It demonstrates reliability of earlier findings and adds to external validity by showing the same effect can be obtained under different conditions. This includes altering subjects, setting, administration of the IV and target behaviors.
i. Example: Researchers from the above example would examine the effect of positive reinforcement on homework completion and also the child's use of the word "please".
8. Define what is meant by "social validity" and give examples of results that might be or might not be socially valid. Describe how social validity is measured
• Social validity: or consumer satisfaction, measures the relevance and importance of the goals of the program, the acceptability of the procedures and the value of the behavior change outcomes achieved.
• Examples: Goals in behavior programs should be socially valid. For example, if a caregiver would like the child to learn how to multiply with regrouping, however the child is not yet able to add or functionally communicate. Goals should be more appropriate such as; the child will learn how to identify numbers first.
• Measuring Social Validity:
1. Define positive reinforcement in technical terms, what are the three qualifications that must be considered
Occurs when a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior in similar conditions.
2. Distinguish between positive reinforcement as an operation and as a process. (the difference between positive reinforcement and positive reinforcer).
Positive reinforcement as an operation "to deliver consequences when a response occurs; responses are reinforced and not organisms."
-Positive reinforcement as a process "to increase responding through the reinforcement operation."
-Positive reinforcement can serve as a means to simply provide consequences as a result of behaviors (operation) or as a means to create more instances of a behavior (process).
3. Can or does a reinforcer affect the response that it follows?
No. It only affects future rates of behavior/responses.
4. What dimensions of behavior can be affected by reinforcement?
a. Duration: Reinforcement can increase or decrease the amount of time the behavior is engaged in.
b. Latency: Reinforcement can increase or decrease the amount of time between the Sd or direction and the response.
c. Magnitude: Reinforcement can affect the intensity of the behavior.
d. Topography: Reinforcement can affect the shape or form of a behavior.
5. Why is the temporal relation between the behavior and it's consequence important?
- Behaviors other than the target behavior occur during the delay between the behavior and the consequence therefore the behavior temporally closest to the presentation of the reinforcer will be strengthened by its presentation.
6. What is a rule?
- a rule is a verbal description of a behavioral contingency . Learning to follow rules is one way that a persons behavior can come under control of consequences that are too delayed to influence behavior directly.
7. What is a discriminative stimulus?
- an antecedent stimulus correlated with the availability of reinforcement for a particular response class.
8. Describe and give an example of the three-term contingency.
- In the presence of an SD a response (R) occurs which results in a stimulus change (SR+) which increases the likelihood of that response occurring in the future.
-Antecedent, behavior, consequence
-See a police man, slow down, no ticket
9. What are motivating operations (MO's) ? And what are their two effects on behavior?
1. MO's can reduce or increase the effectiveness of stimuli, objects or events that are reinforcers.
2. MO's can also affect the momentary frequency in which the behavior occurs due to the reinforcers change in effectiveness.
10. Does an individual have to be aware of the fact that a consequence occurred for it to function as a reinforcer? Why or why not?
- You do not have to know you are delivering a reinforcer or receiving a reinforcer for it to be a reinforcer. A reinforcer is automatic.
11. Define automatic reinforcer. Is this a topographical or functional definition?
An automatic reinforcement identifies a behavior-reinforcement relation that occurs without the presentation of consequences by other people. It is a functional definition.
12. Define conditioned reinforcer (secondary) and generalized reinforcer. How is a secondary reinforcer different from a primary reinforcer?
-Secondary Reinforcers also known as conditioned reinforcers are learned as reinforcers. This is a previously neutral stimulus that is paired with being a reinforcer. For example, when a teacher pairs positive praise, "Good listening!" with a primary reinforcer, m&m's, the student will begin being reinforced by the positive praise.
-Generalized: a conditioned reinforcer that as a result of having been paired with many other reinforcers does not depend on an establishing operation for any particular form of reinforcement for its effectiveness. (like social praise being paired with gummies. Later social praise will work independent of gummies).
-Primary reinforcers are not learned to be reinforcing.
13. Define the "Premack Principle" and give a real-life example of it.
"The 'Premack Principle' states that making the opportunity to engage in a behavior that occurs at a relatively high free operant rate contingent on the occurrence of low-frequency behavior." Meaning, children who enjoy doing an activity such as going outside to play, will do a low frequency behavior or something they do not enjoy, such as completing chores. Therefore the child is told, "you can go outside after you finish your chores."
14. List and describe at least seven methods for identifying reinforcers
- Asking the person about their stimulus preference
o Asking the person, significant others, what the individual may want to work for.
- Free operant observation
o What activities does that individual engage in mostly during free time.
o Less obtrusive the better
- Trail-based Methods
o Stimuli are presented to the learner in a series of trials and the learners responses to the stimuli are recorded and measured as an index of preference.
- Concurrent schedule reinforcer assessment
o When two or more contingencies of reinforcement operate independently and simultaneously for two or more behaviors a concurrent schedule is in effect
o You measure the individual's response for both stimuli tested and for the stimuli that had the greatest response time become the highly preferred.
- Multiple schedule reinforcer assessment
o Consist of two or more component schedules of reinforcement for a single response with only one component schedule in effect at any given time.
- Progressive-Ratio schedule reinforcer assessment
o Progressive- ratio schedules provide framework for assessing the relative effectiveness of a stimulus as reinforcement as response requirements increase.
15. Describe and give an example of the use of non-contingent reinforcement.
- Non contingent reinforcement (NCR) is the presentation of a potential reinforcer on a fixed-time (FT) or variable time (VT) schedule of the occurrence of the targeted behavior.
o it is contingent upon the passage of time not responses- fixed or variable interval
o Example: For a fixed interval of one minute, after one minute has gone by the reinforcer is provided.
16. What are the components of a Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior procedure. What behavior is reinforced in this procedure? How do you know the procedure was effective?
- Delivers a potential reinforcer whenever the target behavior has not occurred during a set time interval.
- Only goal is to reduce target behavior, with hold reinforcer for target behavior
- a potential reinforcer is delivered if the target response has not occurred during a pre-set interval
- you know the procedure is being effective when the targeted behavior is decreasing
17. What are the components of a Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior procedure. What behavior is reinforced in this procedure? How do you know the procedure was effective?
-The potential reinforcer is presented contingent on occurrences of a desirable alternative to the target behavior. Alternative behaviors are being reinforced.
-Effective: whether level of responding decreases/increases as a function of the absence and presence of the response-consequence contingency.
18. Define "escape" and "avoidance" as they relate to negative reinforcement. Give examples of each.
- escape- A response produces escape from an ongoing stimulus
o turning off the lights in the bedroom when you go to sleep
o shutting the blinds when you go to bed so the sunlight doesn't come in
- Avoidance- a reponse prevents or postpones the presentation of a stimulus.
o Wearing sunglasses when it is sunny
o Using an umbrella to avoid rain
19. Know the eight guidelines for using reinforcement effectively.
- Set an easily achieved initial criterion for reinforcement
- Use high quality reinforcers of sufficient magnitude
- Use varied reinforcers to maintain potent establishing operations
- Use direct rather than indirect reinforcement contingencies when possible
- Combine response prompts and reinforcement
- Reinforce each occurrence of the behavior initially
- Use contingent attention and descriptive praise
- Gradually increase the response to reinforcement delay
- Gradually shift from contrived to naturally occurring reinforcement
1. Explain what is meant by stimulus presentation versus stimulus termination.
Presenting or giving a stimulus (or reinforcer) increases the likelihood of the target behavior occurring; for instance, a child is given a token for using the restroom. Termination, or taking away a stimulus refers to a stimulus being taken away in order to encourage behavior to increase in frequency; for example, if a child has a good daily report from his teacher then the parent can take away a stimulus, such as one chore.
2. Provide the technical definition of negative reinforcement. If given examples, be able to correctly identify those examples that illustrate negative reinforcement.
Negative reinforcement is "the occurrence of a response produces the removal, termination, reduction, or postponement of a stimulus, which leads to an increase in the future occurrence of that response." Meaning, negative reinforcement increases the frequency of behavior by withholding a stimulus or consequence, often aversive.
3. Explain fully the difference between positive and negative reinforcement, making sure you focus on the key distinction of the difference.
The key distinction between positive and negative reinforcement is the manner of the stimulus following the behavior (the consequence). Positive involves adding or giving a stimulus that was not previously present in the environment, whereas negative involves the removal or termination of stimulus previously present in the environment.
4. Describe the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment. How do they operate differently, and what is the effect of each on behavior? What is common between these operations?
Negative reinforcement and negative punishment are often confused with each other. The term "negative" in both instances relates to the absence or taking away of a stimulus. However Negative Reinforcement increases behaviors, whereas Negative Punishment decreases the likelihood of behaviors occurring.
5. Explain why negative reinforcement and punishment do not refer to "good" or "bad" or other moral concepts.
Often individuals attribute terms "reinforcement and punishment" as bad or aversive and good or positive. However these terms simply describe what the stimulus is doing to the behavior, increasing or decreasing the behavior.
6. How does an escape contingency relate to the concept of negative reinforcement?
Escape and avoidance are both parts of negative reinforcement because a stimulus is being sidestepped or prevented. Escape is where the response ends the continuing stimulus. For instance, escape contingency occurs when a person presses the "off" button on their alarm.
7. How does an avoidance contingency relate to the concept of negative reinforcement?
Escape and avoidance are both parts of negative reinforcement because a stimulus is being sidestepped or prevented. Avoidance is a response that "prevents or postpones the presentation of a stimulus." For example, an instance of an avoidance contingency would be when an employee will walk a different way in order to avoid their supervisor, though they will be required to see their supervisor eventually or pushing "snooze" on their alarm clock.
8. Define, discriminate between, unconditioned and conditioned negative reinforcers.
-Unconditioned Negative Reinforcers: "Stimuli whose removal strengthens behavior in the absence of prior learning." The stimuli that is removed is usually aversive stimuli that is natural to individuals such as very hot or cold temperatures, pain or bright lights.
-Conditioned Negative Reinforcers: "Previously neutral events that acquire their effects through pairing with an existing conditioned or unconditioned negative reinforcer." For example, if an individual watches the weather channel and sees the anticipated hot weather for the day, they avoid the weather by remaining at home that day.
-Conditioned and unconditioned reinforcers are both the absence of a stimulus in order to increase frequency of certain behaviors, however unconditioned reinforcers are unlearned whereas conditioned are learned stimuli individuals avoid or would like terminated.
9. Define and discriminate between social and automatic negative reinforcement. What is the critical difference between these two?
Social and automatic negative reinforcement are both able to extinguish a reinforcer with either. Social negative reinforcement avoids a stimulus consequently from actions of another person whereas Automatic negative reinforcement is the ability to avoid a stimulus without the action of another person. For example, when an employee is unable to complete a project asks for help (social negative reinforcement) or they persevere and figure it out independently (automatic negative reinforcement).
10. Describe the factors that influence the effectiveness of negative reinforcement.
1. The consequence is an immediate change after the target response. For instance, if a child does a target behavior of placing the last puzzle piece, they are immediately reinforced with a break.
2. The magnitude of the negative reinforcement is a big difference between previous stimuli. For example, if the child is being yelled at by an adult, then as soon as the child cries the adult stops abruptly and leaves the room-the change in the child's environment has a large change for the child.
3. The target response consistently promotes escape or postponement. For example, every time the child cries they immediately receive an automatic escape from the activity.
4. Competing responses are not reinforced. For instance, a child needs to sign, "all done" however they continue to sign, "more". Therefore, the child is not given their break for signing anything other than, "all done".
11. Summarize the ethical concerns about using negative reinforcement.
-Behavior shaped by negative reinforcement can be regarded as aversive events.
-Extremely aversive events as antecedents cannot be justified as a part of a program designed to change behavior.
-Aversive antecedents can generate behaviors that are not the intended target behaviors.
1. Define schedules of reinforcement.
• Is a rule that describes a contingency of reinforcement, those conditions by which behaviors will produce reinforcement.
2. Describe the difference between continuous and intermittent schedules.
• CRF: Continuous reinforcement provides reinforcement for each occurrence of behavior. For example, each time a child correctly identifies a letter, they are reinforced by a teacher's praise.
• INT: Intermittent schedules of reinforcement are possible in which some, but not all, occurrences of the behavior are reinforced. For example, the teacher reinforces every third letter the child identifies.
3. Define ratio and interval schedules of reinforcement.
• Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement: Require a number of responses before one response produces reinforcement.
1. Animal: A rabbit is required to push a button three times before the reinforcement of a carrot is produced.
2. Clinical: A child is required to fill their token board of five tokens before they receive their reinforcement.
• Interval Schedules require an elapse of time before a response produces reinforcement.
1. Animal: A rabbit will be pushing a button for reinforcement, but the item will only be produced after two minutes when the rabbit pushes the button.
2. Clinical: A child is doing their math homework but will only be reinforced with praise every two minutes.
4. Define and describe fixed and variable schedules.
• Fixed Ratio: requires the completion of a number of responses to produce a reinforcer. This results in a high rate of responses and a post reinforcement pause.
i. Clinical: A child is given their reinforcer after correctly responding five times.
ii. Animal: A rabbit is reinforced with a carrot after pressing a button five times.
• Variable Ratio: Schedule of reinforcement requires the completion of a variable number of responses to produce a reinforcer. There is no post reinforcement pause. There is an average/mean number of responses before reinforcement is produced (VR5, VR8). Produces consistent, steady rates of response due to the subject being unsure of whether the next response will produce reinforcement.
i. Clinical: A child is completing problems for their math homework. They are reinforced after doing an average of two questions VR2: reinforcement at numbers 2, 5, 6, 8, 11, 12.
ii. Animal: A rabbit presses a button to receive a carrot, though the carrot is only released on a schedule of VR 5. It is released at presses 1, 6, 11, 16, 20, 27.
• Fixed Interval: schedule of reinforcement provides reinforcement for the first response following a fixed duration of time. When the first response occurs sometime after the elapse of a fixed interval, that response is immediately reinforced and the timing of another fixed interval is usually started with the reinforcement. Post reinforcement pause with an initially slow but accelerating rate of response is evident toward the end of the interval. FI Scallop. Slow to moderate rates of response
i. Clinical: A student is given a deadline to complete an assignment by the end of the school day. As the end of the day approaches their work gradually quickens and increases to finish before the time has lapsed.
ii. Animal: A rabbit is required to press a button before the light in their box turns green, in order to receive a carrot. The light begins to turn red, then yellow right before it will turn green, and the rabbit pushes the button at yellow.
• Variable Interval: schedule of reinforcement provides reinforcement for the first correct response following the elapse of variable durations of time. Constant steady response rate, no post reinforcement pause, low to moderate response rates.
i. Clinical: A child is completing a math sheet and they are reinforced for working quietly at variable time intervals with an average of five minutes in between.
ii. Animal: A rabbit is pressing on a lever to receive their snack, but they lever only works at variable time intervals with an average of 4 minutes.
5. Accurately describe the behavioral patterns generated by each of the four schedules of reinforcement. If shown a graph of data generated by a particular schedule of reinforcement, be able to accurately label the schedule it illustrates. Describe the behavioral effects of each schedule.
• VR: Consistent, steady and high rates of responding and no post reinforcement pause.
• FR: High rates of responding with post reinforcement pause.
• VI: Low to moderates rates of response without a post reinforcement pause. Similar to VR but not as quick.
• FI: Initially slow but accelerating rate of response is evident toward the end of the interval, reaching max rate just before delivery of the reinforcer. A post reinforcement pause after the reinforcer creating a scallop.
6. Describe some ways of using schedules of reinforcement in clinical situations, including ways to generate the schedules.
• A way to generate and use schedules in clinical situations would be to use the classroom lottery VR Procedure mentioned in the text. The teacher has index cards with each student's name written on it, as a result of completed assignments, and places them in a box. After an established interval (1 week), the teacher draws a name from the box and declares the student as the winner. The lottery can have first, second and third place, or more winners. The more cards students earn, the greater is the chance than one of their cards will be picked.
7. Define post-reinforcement pause and list the schedules generate this pause.
• Period following delivery of SR+ where little responding occurs. Both the fixed interval and fixed ratio schedules have a post reinforcement pause.
8. What is meant by the phrase "thin the schedules of reinforcement".
• First: thin an existing schedule by gradually increasing the response ratio or duration of time interval.
• Second: Use instructions to clearly communicate the schedule of reinforcement facilitating smooth transition during the thinning process.
• Done as soon acquisition has occurred
• Can be any schedule (determined by goal rate)
• Ratio Strain: When you no longer have a dense enough schedule (of reinforcement) to maintain performance (you increased the ratio too quickly)
9. Describe some variables that influence the control of schedules of reinforcement.
• Immediate histories from schedules of reinforcement may affect current schedule performances more than remote past histories.
• Instructions given by the applied behavior analyst, self-instructions and environmental aids may make human participants resistant to temporal schedule control.
• Uncontrolled establishing operations in conjunction with schedules of reinforcement in applied settings will confound schedule effects.
11. What is a compound schedule of reinforcement ?
• Combining more than one SR+ schedule (FR4 -called on every fourth person but CRF for each response)
• With or without discriminative stimuli
i. -why/why not
12. Define concurrent schedules.
• When two or more reinforcement contingencies of reinforcement operate independently and simultaneously for two or more behaviors.
• When a child is reinforced with an allowance for engaging in two different behaviors such as cleaning their room and finishing their homework.
10. What is a "limited hold"?
• Specifying the time limit under which a response must occur in order to access reinforcement
• Used in within the context of an existing schedule
• CRF or interval
2. Name the categories of functions
- Social Positive Reinforcement- Problem behaviors that result from immediate attention from others.
o Examples: Head turns; Facial expressions; reprimands; attempts to soothe, console, or distract.
- Tangible Reinforcement- Problem behavior results in access to reinforcing materials or other stimuli.
o Child cries until favorite television show is turned on; Stealing another childs candy produces access to the item taken.
- Automatic Positive Reinforcement- A behavior is assumed to be maintained by automatic reinforcement only after social reinforcers have been ruled out.
o Thumb sucking might be reinforced by physical stimulation of either the hand or the mouth.
- Social negative reinforcement- Behaviors that are learned as a result of terminating or postponing aversive events.
o By hanging up the phone it terminates an unwanted interaction. Also self injurious behaviors may get a child out of an interaction with a person.
AUTOMATIC NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT
- The aversive stimuli is a motivating operation that makes termination of it reinforcing.
o Putting lotion on a bug bite to sooth it.
3. Explain the difference between behavioral topographies and behavioral functions, and state which one we should be most concerned about.
- Topography refers to the information about the surrounding conditions that account for it.
- Functions are the consequences that maintain behaviors. Functions are much more important in order to address behaviors.
4. What is the relationship between FBA and intervention and treatment?
• FBAs can identify the relationship between behaviors and their functions. With this type of knowledge, interventionists can alter the antecedents and consequences in order to change or modify behavior. FBAs can also help interventionists identify what is reinforcing to the child in order to teach replacement behaviors.
5. List some advantages and disadvantages of functional analyses.
o Gives a clear depiction of what variables relate to the problem behavior in order to assess and treat problem behaviors.
o Enables more reinforcement treatments to be used rather than punishment.
o It may temporarily strengthen/increase problem behaviors.
o May result in the behavior assuming new functions.
o Individuals may not understand the necessity of purposefully arranging the conditions to create or reinforce behavior.
o Functional Analysis cannot address all behaviors, such as serious or infrequent bheaviors.
o Some behaviors and antecedents may not be evident in controlled settings, only in the natural environment.
o FA requires much time, effort and professional expertise.
6. Describe what a descriptive functional behavioral assessment. Give examples of it and how it is different from functional analysis.
• Descriptive functional behavioral assessment is a way to determine the functional relations in behaviors by observing the individual in their natural environment. For example, in descriptive functional behavioral assessments an interventionist may attend a school setting to observe the child and note antecedents, behaviors and consequences relating to problem behaviors. Whereas, functional analysis would conduct a series of trials using antecedents and consequences and manipulating them in order to determine which function is the most reinforcing for the individual.
7. Define and differentiate among the different descriptive methods described in this chapter.
• ABC Recording:
o ABC Continuous Recording: "The observer records occurrences of the targeted problem behaviors and selected environmental events in the natural routine during a period of time." This involves the observer taking data on every target behavior (such as every time the child screams) and also taking data on every time the antecedent and consequences that are being focused on (every task demand and break time) occur, regardless of whether the behavior occurred at the time of those antecedent and consequence.
o ABC Narrative Recording: Data is collected on the antecedent and consequences only when the target behavior occurs. This is much less time consuming than continuous ABC recording.
o Scatterplots allow interventionists to determine when the behaviors occur more often than other instances. The data collector collects data every block of time (every 30 minutes for instance) and rates whether the behavior occurred a lot, some or not at all. This allows for researchers to determine patterns in behaviors, such as the behavior occurring when there are periods of low attention in the environment.
8. Define indirect functional assessment, give examples, and explain how it is different from descriptive functional assessment.
• Indirect Functional Assessment: This type of assessment asks persons who are familiar with the individual being assessed and asks questions utilizing questionnaires, interviews and checklists. This allows the data collector to determine what environmental factors may be relating or reinforcing the problem behavior.
o These methods do not require direct observation as in descriptive functional behavior assessment, but indirect by interviewing significant others.
o For example: Indirect functional assessment would ask the significant other about the problem behavior the child engages in, spitting. While descriptive functional behavior assessment would require the observer to attend a natural environment setting, like the home, and take data on when the child spits and what were the antecedents and consequences.
9. List the advantages and disadvantages of indirect FBA.
o Can provide information on variables reinforcing behaviors.
o Are viewed as more convenient since they do not require direct observation.
o Individuals answering the interviewer cannot be completely accurate and unbiased when reporting instances of behavior.
o The individual answering may not be able to report the behaviors in a way conducive to the actual question.
o Research is minimal in supporting indirect methods of FBA in discussing their reliability, validity and IOA.
10. Name the steps involved in conducting FBA and briefly describe what happens during each step.
a. Gather information: The initial stage in conducting FBA requires the interventionist to conduct indirect and direct methods of assessment. Including interviewing significant others to the individual with problem behaviors and also directly observing the individual in the natural environment.
b. Interpreting information and formulating hypotheses: Based on the indirect and direct assessments done in the previous stage, now the interventionist can formulate hypotheses that suggest functions of behaviors. The patterns of behavior and the environmental events should be analyzed in order to formulate hypotheses.
c. Testing hypotheses: A functional analysis should be conducted after the hypotheses are formed in order to test whether those hypotheses are correct. The interventionist must begin with a controlled environment to serve as a baseline, then gradually introducing various variables to test the behavioral hypotheses.
d. Developing interventions: Based on the functional relations the interventionist discovered from the previous step, the interventionist can now develop an intervention or plan to address the problem behavior. This includes altering antecedents and/or consequences to shape behavior to be more desirable.