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Act I opens with a radio broadcast. Based on the information provided, set the time period.

The time period is 1940s during World War II because he radio broadcast mentions Germans and Soviets, and also talks about the Allies. 10

Illyria is a fictional country. Based on the information provided, what countries might qualify as possible real-life models for Illyria? Keep in mind the geography of the time period in which the novel is set.*

Ilyria is actually Hungary. The two countries between Germany and Soviet Union is Czechoslovakia and Hungary, but since Czechoslovakia is an ally country and Hungary is an axis. Illyria has to be Hungry because they were on the same side as the Germans and Hungry was part of the axis that included Germany. Although both joined the After World War II Hungary became part of the Soviet Union.

What does Olga do for a living?

She is a member of the Illyrian party. 10

Where has Hugo been for the past few years?

A Jail because he has been in jail due to the murder of Hoerder . 10

Why was he there?

Hugo says he is unsure of why he killed Hoerder but from what it looks like, Hugo may have killed Hoerder out of jealousy for kissing his wife or for Hoerders beliefs because Hugo disagrees with Hoerders beliefs. 10

At the bottom of page 129, Hugo makes reference to "comrades" and later (page 132) to "the party." What does this suggest about the ideology of the group to which the two belong?*

The group that "comrades" and "the party" suggest is that its part of the Soviet Communism. The Party doesn't care about the country, but just wants control of the economy and its people. 10

Give two possible reasons (one stated in the play, one implied) why Olga spares Hugo's life.

Olga believes that Hugo may still be "salvageable" and can still serve the Party. The second reason is that since she finds that Hugo can be a good use to the party, she thinks he can serve as a first hand assasin because he has proved himself already by killing Hoerder. 10

The motives behind Hugo's crime are ambiguous. What are the three possible motives as expressed in Act I?

1. they were just orders from the party
2. crime of passion because Hugo was jealous of Hoerderer kissing Jessica
3. disillusion about Hoerderer; Hoerderer states to Hugo that women are a distraction, yet when a women shows him attention (Jessica), he gives up his beliefs.

What shift in the narrative style occurs at the outset of Act II?

At the start of Act I, Hugo goes back in time to the time period when he killed Hoerder in Act VI to tell Olga his story of what happened while he was with Hoerder and why he killed him and how he felt. Then near the end of Act VII the narrative style switches back to the present which would be the time period of 1946-1947. This narrative style is called "frame narrative"; the beginning and end of the story is in the present, while the everything in between takes place in the past.

What name does Hugo choose as his "underground" pseudonym? Why is this significant? (You will need to do some Internet research on this question..)*

Raskolnikov. He is the protagonist of Crime and Punishment. He believed people were "ordinary" and "extraordinary." He murders a pawnbroker and the pawnbroker's sister. He is told to admit his crime and he does.
The protagonist (Raskolnikov) in the book "Crime and Punishment" believed that if you can justify a good reason behind killing a bad person, then that would excuse you from punishment for that crime. That would relate to the character Hugo because he believed killing that character Hoerder would be beneficial due to him betraying his own party. 10

On page 142, Hugo talks about his father. What is suggested about the connection between his involvement with the party and his father's radical past?

At the beginning of the play, Hugo is the newspaper writer for the party. Although he enjoyed the job at first, he began finding the job boring and useless. Because of his involvement with the party, Hugo is following in his father's footstep as shown in this quote " In my day I, too, belong to a revolutionary group; I wrote for their paper. You will get over it just as I did..." Hugo's father belonged to the Bourgeois and served it as a writer just like how Hugo worked as a writer for the Party (Proletariat). This suggests that both men would grow bored with jobs as writers and go on to despise their own respective Parties. Hugo has this reaction to the Party because he wants to prove himself as one of the Proletariat. Hugo specifically joined the party because he seems to despise his father and does not want to be part of the Bourgeois. 10

On pp. 142-143, Hugo hints that a "death wish" is motivating his involvement in the movement. Speculate as to why he is so fatalistic.

Hugo says " I am tired of scribbling while our comrades are dying". By this he means that he feels like he isn't doing anything and helpless; he feels like there is no point in living. By Hugo mention the "Death Wish" he is trying to explain how he feels as if he has nothing to look forward in life which foreshadows his death. Also, he is trying to say that the party doesn't need him and he doesn't feel as if he has a part of it anymore. 10

Who is Hoederer?

He is the general secretary of the Socialist Proletarian Party. 10

Why does the party want him dead?

They disagree with his forming one government that does not give entire power to party.
Hoerders plan is to unite all the parties so that Ilyria will not be a part of Soviet union. Ultimately, the party wants to remain a single party and to rule all of Ilyria. To the party, getting infinite power is more important than protecting the country. Although Hoerder believes that the country comes first and the party second. Since Hoerder will go against the party just to get his plan through, the party sees him as a traitor therefore he should be dead. 10

How do they plan to do so?

They want to send Hugo to assassinate him by becoming his secretary and by doing so, he'll be at close range to get the job done. 10

Why is Hugo so eager to volunteer?

He wants to prove himself to the party that he is capable of pulling off a real job rather than his current one which is writing for the paper which he finds not intriguing. Hugo also wants to be accepted as a member of the Party because he was told by several members that he is not one of them. Slick and George make a comment that he is not a real revolutionary because of his bourgeois roots and is educated. 10

Hugo is a member of the bourgeoisie. How does this status (and his level of education) impact on his decisions?

Hugo is actually ashamed from being from this class. Reguardless of Hugo not being able to understand struggling in poverty, he wants to be able to help the party to prove that he didn't need to suffer in poverty to be able to help the party. That is why he volunteers to kill Hoederer. Also, he is ashamed because Hoerders guards say he will never understand what it is like to be in poverty. 10

At this stage in the novel, does Hugo strike you as an existentialist? Why or why not?

No, he doesn't strike me as an existentialist. Existentialists think for themselves. Hugo eagerly volunteered to kill Hoederer because he wanted to prove himself. He is letting someone else's decisions run his life instead of making his own. 10

If the answer to 18 is "no," into what "perversion" category(ies) would you put Hugo?

Hugo is a narcissist. A narcissist is a person who cares about himself but also about others opinions as well. Hugo wants to feel better about himself and gain respect from others around him therefore he is a narcissist because he is obsessive about elevating his status in the party. 10

What does the reader learn about Jessica at the outset of Act III?

We learn that Jessica is very nosey. We found evidence for this when she looked into Hugo's suitcase and started asking question to the answers she already knew. It foreshadows that Jessica is interested in Hordeder due to the suspicious questions that she was asking Hugo and it also shows that she is a liar. 10

Why is Hugo ashamed of his doctorate?

Hugo doesn't want the party, especially Hoederer, to think of him as an intellectual. If they think of him as an intellectual, then it would imply that he is better than the rest of other bourgeoisie party members and not at the same stature. He also is ashamed of his doctorate because Hugo dislikes his father and he doesn't want to repeat in his footsteps. 10

What are Slick and George's criteria for being a "real" revolutionary?

You have to be lower class to know what a true revolutionary is. Also, the person must understand what it is like to starve. 10

How do Slick and George reinforce Hugo's insecurity? How does Jessica reinforce Hugo's insecurity?

Slick and George tell Hugo that he hasn't suffered in poverty and he wouldn't know how to relate to the members of the party. Jessica reinforces his insecurity by not believing that her husband is going to kill Hoerder. She also makes him insecure because he doesn't know specific details about her like her eyes. Jessica doubts him because they do not take each other seriously and don't know when the other is telling the truth.

Why does Hoederer not insist that Hugo's belongings be searched? What is ultimately ironic about Hoederer's decision not to have Hugo searched?

What is ultimately ironic about Hoederer's decision not to have Hugo searched?
Hoederer does not believe that Hugo's belongings should be searched because he doesn't believe that Hugo is a true revolutionary is no threat to him. The ironic part is that Hugo ultimately kills Horderer with the gun that was in the suitcase which Hoerder neglected to check. 10

What does the following passage on p. 171 reveal about Hoederer and about ideologues in general?

Marx and Hegel are communists. Since he is calling them excellent, Hoederer is a supporter of communist
Hoederer is trying to get under Hugo's skin. Since Hugo has never taken direct action in a revolution, Hoederer is able to make Hugo feel very uncomfortable. The ideology is that Hugo, a member of the bourgeoisie, is a fake revolutionary. He has no credibility to prove that he can go through with their plan . Hoederer is very judging of Hugo. "If you're sick, there's still some time to tell me and I will ask the Central Committee to send someone to take your place"
"You don't smoke? [A negative gesture from Hugo] The Central Committee gave me to understand that you've never taken part in any direct action. Is that true?" From the passage on p. 171 when Hoerderer goes to look at the books on the table he doesn't know about Lorca and Elliot who are poets; which is considered arts to be part of the Bourgeois which is why he disdains them and Hugo. But Hoerder would recognize Hegel and Marx because they are from the political theorists who appeal to the proletariat. 10

What is foreshadowing? What does it add to a work of fiction?

Representing or indicating something beforehand. In fiction, it gives a hint of what is to come. Foreshadowing is about trying to manipulate the reader's mind by giving a subtle hint of what's to come. It intrigues the reader and his curiosity drives him to continue reading.Cause/Effect? It validates the actions that are in the later part of the plot by establishing cause and effect relationships. 10

What is foreshadowed on page 170

The foreshadow is that Hoederer and Jessica are going to sleep together. Evidence? You can tell Hoederer is attracted to Jessica because he smells her and he thinks its perfume but its actually her natural scent. He also tells her to lock her door even if it's him at the door. 10

What is the connection between the following statements on pp. 173-74?
Hoederer: What are these snapshots? So that was it! A velvet jacket. A sailor collar with a beret. What a well-dressed little man.
Hugo: I am in the party to forget myself.

These pictures are of Hugo from his past. They reveal to Hoederer that he was part of a well-off family. Hugo believes in standing up for the common people though, so that' why he says he joined the party to "forget" himself. He couldn't stand up for the common people if he wasn't one of them himself. That's also why he took the job of killing Hoederer; he wanted to prove to the rest of the party that he wasn't some helpless (bourgeois) intellectual. 10

Reread the exchanges between Jessica and Hugo on pp. 174-180 and answer the following question: If Jessica is apolitcal, why does she encourage Hugo to kill Hoederer?

She's in love with Hugo so she wants to respect him, but she only views him as a man of words. She wants him to actually take action by killing Hoederer so he can accomplish what he was sent to do and she'll respect him. 10

Of what literary character is Jessica reminiscent?

Jessica is a reminiscent of Lady Macbeth, because they both forced their husband to kill their husband to provoke their insecurities. Along with this she comes to the realization that the killing of Hoederer is not a game, in which she tries to stop. 10

What is the root of Hoederer's misogyny (pp. 183-84)? Given his existential leanings, what might Sartre be suggesting about "ideologies"?

Hoederer believes that women are a distraction that keep men from achieving their goals. The lure of testosterone poisons the brain. If there are a lot of women around, they will be the focus. Ideologies compensate for something in your life that is missing. So, Hoederer is missing women in his life and he is filling it with that Party, putting all his effort in to the party. (It also could be inferrered that Hoederer was hurt by a woman earlier in life, and that's why he shuts them out). 10

On page 186. Hoederer suggests that there is an essential difference between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. What is it, and what does it explain about their level of commitment to "the cause."

it explain about their level of commitment to "the cause."
Hoederer says that the proletariat matures quicker and will die faster, which is why he so successful at the moment. Hugo points out that he feels compelled to grow up but is reluctant to because he wants to stay youthful, which in turn makes him feel that he will die young and unaccomplished. To the proletariat, "the cause" is more meaningful because it is what they are working for their entire life, while the bourgeoisie slack off, meaning nothing will get accomplished. 10

The exchange between Hugo and Karsky at the bottom of page 187 has been described by critics as "an existentialist manifesto." Explain.

This conversation is an existentialist manifesto because Karsky asks Hugo if he is interested in hearing about his father. Hugo says "no" and Karsky tells him that he (Hugo) will be the reason for his father's death. Hugo says that his dad created him so they both influenced each other's lives so they are even. This ties into Sartrian Existentialism becasue one person's actions may impact another person's life, as Hugo does to his father, and vise-versa. 10

The section on pp. 189-195 (along with p. 218) has been identified by critics as the most important section of the play in terms of explaining its title and articulating its theme. How so?

Hoerder says he has "dirty hands" when Hugo says that he wants to do everything in a good, clean way. Hoerder explains that you can't govern innocently and sometime you have to get your hands dirty in order for things to get down, for the greater good. How does this explain Hoederer's actions? 7. It explains why he is forming the coalition with the bourgeoisie and the monarchy even though doing so he is selling out the party. He says that You have to get your hands dirty to what is necessary. 10

Who throws the bomb through the window on p.195? Why does Hugo think it was done?

Olga, Hugo believes that the bomb was thrown because the party doubted that he would kill Hoederer. 10

The bomb thrower rationalizes the act differently. How so?

Olgo rationalizes it differently by showing that Hugo would have died fighting for his own party and he would die as hero. 10

Pages 214-221 involve a philosophical debate between Hugo and Hoederer. What is the nature of the debate and how does it fit Sartre's existentialist ethos?

The debate is Hoederer wants to make the government more social (Communist) and he will impose policies to make it happen this way. The policies will allow the communists to take over more easily but Hugo thinks that the government should more stay pure and not mix in with the communists and although power is the overall goal, Hoederer's way is unacceptable. It fits in with Sartre's existentialist ethos because it shows what point they are willing to go to. Hoederer is willing to do unethical things in order to get power and put the communists in control. Hugo sees this as unethical and that Hoederer has to be stopped. Act IV, Kar sky says "It is very likely that you will bear the responsibility for his death" and Hugo replies "It is practically certain that he bears the responsibility of my life, so we are even." This is an example of existentialism that you bear the responsibility for others that are in contact with you.

Why does Jessica attempt to seduce Hoederer in Act VI?

She sees that he is a real man unlike her Hugo. Also, she has a physical attraction to him.

She sees him as a man of action where she sees Hugo as a man of words. Hugo and hoerderer are opposites of each other and since Hugo is only a man of words, Jessica does not respect him. 10

Why does Hoederer lie to Slick and George about the reason Hugo shoots him?

He doesn't want Slick and George to think he is weak. Throughout the play, he talks about how women are cripples and how you should steer clear of them. If Slick and George knew that he was shot by Hugo because he was found with Hugo's wife, that would make him weak for giving in to her womanly.

In the final analysis, what is the reason why Hugo kills Hoederer? Why does this make him (as he says in the last line) "unsalvageable"?

Hoederer promised Hugo that he would take him under his wing to help him figure himself out. This shows that Hugo had to have agreed with Hoederer's views to some degree because he wanted to learn from him. Hugo started off hating Hoederer because of the party, but really grew fond of him. So when he killed Hoederer, it wasn't because he was jealous for Jessica or because of political reasons, but because, as he says, he opened the door and caught them. He says he's unsalvageable because he killed the man that was supposed to help him cross from boyhood to manhood, so he can't be saved now. 7 ... Hugo had been putting off killing Hoederer because he had started to understand him on his political views and on his views about women (which are that they are distracting). So, when he opened the door and saw Hoederer and Jessica, he killed Hoederer because he was so infuriated at his hypocrisy (for crumbling under Jessica's charms). 10

Why does Hugo commit "assisted suicide."

When Hugo gets out of jail, he realizes that the party has adopted the coalition to which he wanted to prevent by killing Hoederer . Hugo comes to realize that he killed Hoederer for no reason and the hypocrisy of the party and decides to leave the party. Since Hugo's whole identity was the Party, he decides that there is no where he can go and allows the Party members to shoot him. 10

Candide is most often described as a satire. Define that genre. List one other work of literature that is satirical.

Satire is any work that uses humor, exaggeration, or irony to criticize people or issues. Candide is a satire because Voltaire uses each character to criticize different philosophies. He also criticizes groups of people such as the British and French. Animal Farm is another satirical work of literature because each character represents and ridicules different people in history.
Satire incorporates 3 literary elements: hyperbole, allegories, and reductio ad absurdum to ridicule certain ideas/people.. Candide is a satire because Voltaire successfully uses all three elements to criticize various figures and ideas ranging from the Pope to deism. 10

How does satire differ from parody? List one work of literature, film, music and television that would qualify as parody.*

Satire is more of a dramatization while parodies make fun of the writing style, compositional conventions, directorial nuances, etc., and assigning alternate story lines, lyrics, plots, etc. that lampoon the authors' work. Ex.) The Beaver Papers, The Great Housewives of Art, SNL, Weird Al Yankovic. 10

What is the significance of Candide's name?*

Candide in the story is an innocent boy who simply only follows his teachers philosophy. In other words, he is blind of the evils in the world, always believing that there is a reason for an event. Candide's name signifies pure and sincere, his thoughts and knowledge always under the influence Pangloss. While throughout the book we see Candide question the philosophy, he never completely doubts Pangloss. It is quite funny that whenever something good happens to him, he becomes once again blinded of the the evils in the world and is back to his simple-minded ways. His thought is always under the influence of someone else, as we most see Pangloss's philosophy. Literally translated into English, Candide means "white," as in "innocent," "a blank slate," "without stain," etc. 10

What is the significance of Pangloss' name?*

Pangloss's name comes from the root "pan" which means "all" and gloss, language. Pangloss seems to babble his philosophy away which is all talk, having little merit beyond an outrageous rant. The name is perfect for such a character because it suggests that he has knowledge over many things, which is true as he is a teacher of many subjects (metaphysico-theologo-cosmo-nigology). This, in turn, suggests that he may be a scholar. However, none of the information he conveys has meaning, thus he is "all talk." 10

Who is the historical antecedent of Pangloss? Briefly summarize this man's philosophy.

The historical antecedent of Pangloss was Leibniz. Leibniz was a philosopher within Voltaire's time. Voltaire based Pangloss's philosophy off of Leibniz and his philosophy. Leibniz and Pangloss both shared the idea of "the best of all possible worlds" and meant that there would
always be a cause and effect in the world in order to keep everything stable. Voltaire goes after Leibniz because he felt that his rationale was ridiculous. Like Voltaire, Leibniz was trying to absolve God of responsibility for horrific events by suggesting that there just HAD to be a benevolent reason (AKA "the butterfly effect") for terrible events because, well, God is benevolent. Voltaire begged to differ after Lisbon. 10

Of what is Pangloss a teacher? What does this hyphenated discipline immediately tell the reader about Pangloss?*

Pangloss is a teacher of metaphysico-theologo-cosmo-nigology. This hyphenated discipline tells the reader that Pangloss is a philosopher who believes that everything is somehow related to each other. Pangloss accepts and considers ideas from a very broad perspective. His teachings span from studying the universe to accepting even the dumbest of ideas. 6 It also tells that reader that Pangloss is no common man, he is almost like a scholar which shows his reputation in society. He also teaches Liebnitz's theory of the "butterfly effect," which is somewhat like the snowball effect in which all things are connected and therefore effect the future of other events. If one looks closely at all the hyphenated disciplines, one will notice that they are internally contradictory, and in some cases, refutations of the others. This shows that Pangloss/Leibniz engages in pretzel logic. 10

Describe how Voltaire uses sexual innuendo for satirical purposes.

Pangloss got syphilis from Paquette. The genealogy of this disease was traced back to kings and nobles and Jesuits, showing lust's prevalence with every European group possible. "it has made remarkable progress amongst us, and most of all in these huge armies of of honest, well-trained mercenaries, who decide the destinies of the nations. Our great leaders have STD's,....hmm. Along with this, there are many instances in which characters in the novel are "ravished". Cunegonde as well as the old woman go through this and explain that the same-if not worse- was done to their people. This kind of ties in Voltaire's deist beliefs that if there were a God, such horrible things would not have happened, and, in fact, all is not for the best. Perhaps the funniest and snottiest dig at Leibniz was the tryst between Pangloss and the chambermaid early in the novel. Cunegonde notices Pangloss' "sufficient reason" (ha, ha) and the "cause and effect" relationships (ho, ho) of their liaison. Those terms are straight out of Leibniz's treatise on optimism. 10

What might he be suggesting about such "philosophers" as Pangloss by making a connection such as that in #6?

While philosophers may have been smart due to their vast knowledge of various subjects, they were also humans; they made mistakes. They may think they know everything there is to know, but theyre like ordinary men, they have their weaknesses. 10

Why is Candide expelled from the baron's castle? What is Voltaire satirizing here?

Candide is expelled from the baron's castle for kissing his daughter. Before that, he was regarded as such a blessed lad, respected by everyone. However, ONE little kiss to Cunegedon (and his unfortunate position, only able to claim 71 quarterings, compared to Cungedon's 72, and he was kicked out. Voltaire makes fun at the strict social system during 18th century. 10

What is the historical antecedent of the war between the Bulgars and the Abars? What country does each represent?*

The war between the Bulgars and Abars, is an allegory for the 30 Years' War. The Abars are the French and the Bulgars are the Prussians. 10

What is a "Te Deum" (p. 25)? What is the significance of the fact that "the rival kings were celebrating their victory with Te Deums in their respective camps"?*

Te Deum is an early Christian hymn of praise. The fact that the kings were celebrating their victory with Christian hymns shows that they were religious and attributed their victory to the help of God. And... the fact that both sides credited God underscores what Voltaire saw as the ridiculous nature of organized religion. Both the Catholics (Abars) and the Lutherans (Bulgars) think God is "one their side." 10

As its name suggests, what is an Anabaptist?*

An Anabaptist is a person who is not baptised. This means they are technically not part of the chuch community and don't have the same beliefs in originial sin. Anabaptists were formed in the 1500's in Europe and they believed that the church and the state should be kept separate. The prefix "ana" means "re" or "again", so an anabaptist is baptized again as an adult, if they were baptised as babies, and they believe that adults should be rebaptized. Anabaptist literally means "one who baptizes over again". Anabaptists did not believe that anyone should presume to baptize someone without his/her consent (i.e. the Catholics), so they suggested that baptism be withheld until one could make a reasonable, informed decision. They felt this was especially important for Catholics, as Catholic dogma states that apostates will go directly to hell. They will not pass go, nor collect $200. 10

What is suggested by the fact that James the Anabaptist is the first compassionate character other than Candide who is introduced in the novel?

Voltaire makes fun of the religious views of all the characters except James. James is aware of human faults, unlike Pangloss and Candide. This shows that Voltaire is criticizing Catholicism because the only compassionate character he writes of is not catholic, but Anababpists. The fact that James the Anabaptist is the first compassionate person introduced shows that people who aren't religious or don't have the same beliefs as the church are good people. This is a contrast to the people who hurt and teased Candide were religious. This is not just about the Catholics. It is about all organized religions. He is religious but not part of an organized religion. This is Voltaire's satire of dogma, which he thinks ruins one's belief in God. 10

When Candide is reunited with Pangloss, he discovers that his teacher has been afflicted with what disease? How does this discovery inform your assesment in #7?

He discovers that Pangloss is afflicted with syphillis. This discovery informs the assesment on sexual innuendo by showing that how everybody in Europe has STDs, even the king and queen, pox is very alike. This is because everyone is being infected with pox because of war and how close soldiers are to each other. I don't know if its safe to say "everyone" in Europe has STDs......moreover, I think Voltaire is satirizing promiscuity, and that if you mess around, there will be consequences for your actions. Actually, Voltaire is attempting to illustrate that many people with lofty ideals (philosophy, religion, politics, et.) are just as lustful and disgusting as the rest of humanity. 10

What effect is produced by the constant repetition of the expression "the best of all possible worlds" in the context of all that happens in Chapters 1-10?

The phrase "the best of all possible worlds" produces a hypocritical feeling throughout the chapters because Candide believes in Pangloss's theory that we are living in the best of all possible worlds but it seems as though nothing good is happening to almost any of the characters. 10

Given Voltaire's motivation for writing Candide, why is it predictable that James the Anabaptist would die in the flood resulting from the Lisbon Earthquake?

Baptism is done with water, either by sprinkling water on the head or immersing the body in water. It is deliciously ironic that the guy who is an Anabaptist would die in a tsunami, especially the one that inspired the book. 10

Voltaire is an equal opportunity critic of religion.What major world religions are being satirized in Chapters 1-10? Discuss in detail the manner in which Voltaire satirizes each. Is any one religion attacked more severely than the others?

Catholics, Lutherans, Calvinists, Jews, and Muslims. I don't have time to go into detail. You can look these up yourselves. the Candide people sort of dropped the ball on this one.

What is an auto de fe?

A ceremony that is utilized for the prevention of further natural disasters similar to the earthquake occurs. People are arrested and then burned, whipped, or hanged. In essence, it is not unlike a human sacrifice to pagan gods, which is part of the satire. Voltaire is suggesting that organized religions are not all that unlike the pagan religions they seek to eradicate. 10

What is the satirical function of the old woman?

When the old woman is first introduced, she tells Candide and Cunegonde her story and what has happened in her life. Voltaire mentions that she is the daughter of a pope. I think Voltaire makes this character the daughter of a pope in order to make fun of Catholics, who believe in the pope. He is telling his readers that the character who has gone through the toughest life in the worst situations happens to be the daughter of a pope. When Catholics believe that God will help us, Voltaire brings up the idea of the old woman and sort of is asking Catholics how they would defend this scenario when this woman who is the daughter of the most religious man in Catholicism has lived one of the most difficult lives. Voltaire really questions God's abilities to help humans on earth . What do Catholics have to say when God can't even seem to help the most religious people is the statement Voltaires tries to make through the character of the old woman. 10

Voltaire's satire of Catholicism continues. The old woman is the daughter of a pope. Given the fact celibacy is an essential part of Catholic canon law, what does her paternity tell you about the Catholic clergy's view of dogma?

The old woman's father is the pope. The pope should not have any children to begin with, so he is being hypocritical and going against what he is teaching and stands for as the pope having children. This is going against Catholic dogma, as if they live by the phrase, "do as I say, not as I do." 10

There is an undercurrent of apparent racism and religious intolerance that runs through Candide. Catalogue examples of these in Chapter 11.

Apparent racism and religious intolerance can clearly be shown in Chapter 11 when the old woman tells the story of her life. "...Even our chambermaids, had more charms than can be found in the whole of Africa" (pg. 51) shows racism by saying that Africa is so extremely poor. "It seems that Europeans have milk in their veins, but it's fire and vitriol that runs in the veins of those who live on Mount Atlas..." show that the Europeans are better than the others and people in Mount Atlas are animals. 10

Is the bigotry expressed in Chapter 11 reflective of Voltaire's beliefs or merely those of his characters?

Through the use of hyperbole, Voltaire ladles the bigotry on so thickly that one cannot take it seriously. That is one of the subtle nuances of allegory. Once the reader realizes that the author is not serious about some things, (s)he begins to assume that he is not serious about others. Later in the novel, it appears that Voltaire agrees with Pococurante, but just the opposite emerges through closer inspection. 10

The old woman's would-be rapist utters a phrase in Italian at the end of Chapter 11. Loosely translated, it means, "How unfortunate it is to be without one's testicles." What is Voltaire trying to convey by having the old woman assaulted by a eunuch?

Voltaire is suggesting that woman are held in such low regard in Europe that even men who cannot achieve erections try to rape them. As you know, rape is not a crime of a sexual nature; it is about dominance and violence. The male sex organ is just another weapon. 10

What aspect of 18th Century European society is being satirized in Chapters 13-15? Explain. *

Voltaire satirizes social rank in European society. For example, when Candide tells the colonel that he wants to marry his sister, the colonel becomes angry. The reason why he is angry is that Candide is of a lower rank, or class, in society. Priests are supposed to take a vow of poverty, which would suggest that Cunegonde's brother would not have a problem with Candide's social status. Despite his vocation, however, he still holds onto the social stratification of his youth, which shows how ingrained it is. 10

With #24 in mind, speculate as to Cacambo's function in the novel.

Cacambo's function in the novel is to guide Candide like Pangloss did before he died. Whenever something goes wrong Candide listens to Cacambo's input. Although he is comparable to Pangloss, he does not have the same effect because he is simply Candide's servant (he is of lower rank). Cacambo is incredibly wise, a far better mentor to Candide than is Pangloss. Despite this, his social status is one step above that of a slave. Voltaire uses this relationship to underscore his attack on the European social system, which was based strictly on birth, not on any accomplishments one made in life. For those of you who read THE GREAT GATSBY, this is the social system that Tom Buchanan longed for and was the reason for his bigotry. 10

At various points in the novel, Voltaire specifically focuses on the Jesuits. Otherwise
known as "Soldiers of God," the Jesuits—founded by Ignatius Loyola, a former soldier—often accompanied imperialist forces into regions populated by people who were not Christian. Based on their behavior, what do you think Voltaire thought of European empire building and the Jesuits' role in it?

Voltaire ridicules European empire building by showing how the church had its mind on other things than religion. For example, he describes the reverend picking the colonel (Cunegonde's brother) to be a Jesuit because he was a "good-looking boy" and that the priest "took fancy" to him (Pg 66). The church has been in situations where they focused on gaining land and power, and Voltaire is showing on how they are not acting as a clergy, but more as a political power. 10

One of Voltaire's contemporaries, with whom he once agreed but (after Lisbon) later disagreed was Rousseau, whose philosophy of "noble savagery" suggested that the Enlightenment and scientific discovery corrupted mankind. How does Voltaire satirize Rousseau in Chapter 16?

Rousseau believed in the concept of the "noble savage." He felt that technological progress (see: Enlightenment) perverted humans and that only those who were sheltered from such progress could truly actualize themselves as people. Voltaire has the Oreillons engaging in all sorts of disturbing, disgusting behavior as a means of illustrating how "noble" they really are, taking a dig at Rousseau in the process. 10

Once again in Chapter 16, Voltaire goes after the Jesuits. Given what you learned in #6 above, speculate as to why the Oreillons hated the Jesuits so much.

Just like Candide and Cacambo came into their land, the Jesuits were very similar. The Oreillons had been living peacefully and then the Jesuits came and tried to disrupt their peace so naturally they were an enemy. The Jesuits went around trying to convert people to follow their religion and the Oreillons didn't like it and from then on, because of their experience with the Jesuits, they have learned that any stranger must be an enemy and they fear that they will try to do what the jesuits once did. 10

On the Internet, research the author Thomas More. For what is he famous? With this information, speculate as to his relevance to chapters 17-18.*

Thomas More is the person who coined the term "utopia". In chapters 17-18, Cacambo and Candide are in Eldorado, which is described as a utopia. Cacambo and Candide are surprised to see children playing with gold nuggets, and they thought the children were the kids of the king. When the ate at the inn, they tried to pay with the gold nuggets they picked up, and the people laughed at them for giving them stones from the street. They didn't accept any money and said it was free to dine there. Cacambo and Candide say that this is the "country where all goes well", which is what a utopia is. Thomas More is the person who coined the term "utopia". He is famous for the book he wrote, Utopia, in which he gave the name "utopia" to an ideal, imaginary island. In chapters 17-18, Cacambo and Candide are in Eldorado, which is described as a eutopia. Cacambo and Candide are surprised to see children playing with gold nuggets, and they thought the children were the kids of the king. When the ate at the inn, they tried to pay with the gold nuggets they picked up, and the people laughed at them for giving them stones from the street. They didn't accept any money and said it was free to dine there. Cacambo and Candide say that this is the "country where all goes well", which is what a eutopia is. Eldorado sounds like an ideal, imaginary place just like the place Utopia was in More's book. Thus, because it is "not a place," Candide and Cacambo are ultimately unsatisfied and decide to leave. 10

On the Internet, research Manicheism. What character represents this point of view?*

Thefreedictionary.com defines Manicheism as a dualistic philosophy dividing the world between good and evil principles or regarding matter as intrinsically evil and mind as intrinsically good. The idea of Manicheism most closely related to Martin's point of view. Martin believes that man's origin is evil, just like manicheism says that all matter is instrinsically evil. Martin admits that there is possibly some good in the world, but he has never encountered it. This dualistic view of good vs. evil is seen in Martin's beliefs, but Martin believes that evil rules over good. 10

What paradigm shift occurs in chapter 19 regarding Candide's adherence to Pangloss' philosophy? What elicits the change?

The change in Candide's adherence to Pangloss' philosophy is sparked by the terrible things that happen to him and Cacambo while on their way back to Europe. Candide had just started believing that things outside of Europe would start changing in a good way for him, but yet again, bad things are happening to him. He thought once he left Buenos Ayres, there was no hope but he then saw a change and thought that this journey to a new place would bring good things to his life. But after the bad things continued,he starts questioning if there is good anywhere in the world and if there is, why none of that good is for him. 10

How does the death of the evil Dutch captain reflect the Manicheist perspective?

When Candide tells Martin that the Dutch captain received his punishment for robbing him, he says to try to counteract Martin's belief that everything is evil, but Martin's response is, of course, a manichesit one. Manicheist believe in the religion of two powers, good vs. evil.. The death of the Dutch captain reflects the manicheist perspective because Martin says that even though God has punished a scoundrel, the devil has drowned the rest. By "the rest", Martin is referring to the hundred men that they saw drown with the ship. This is manicheist because all though there was "good" done (the death of the Dutch captain) there was more evil that had occured (hundred men drowned on the ship). 10

Clearly, Martin's pessimism sets him up as yet another foil for Candide. If Candide and Martin are the poles, speculate as to where Voltaire himself lies on the philosophical continuum

Martin is, for all intents and purposes, an Absurdist/Quietist (although he predates those terms). Candide, at this stage, is a Leibnizian optimist who believes in the "best of all possible worlds." Voltaire's Deism lies squarely between the two poles. He is both optimistic in his outlook, but not so naively so that he believes in some sort of divine master plan. 10

Candide was written during the Enlightenment, a period of rampant scientific discovery, exploration and artistic expression. What is the potential down side of such an era? How does Candide satirize the Enlightenment in Chapter 22?

One of the problems with the enlightenment is that while many of the advances in literature, math, science, etc., were important and groundbreaking, once Galileo proved the theory of the heliocentric universe, all hell broke loose. The attitude was "if the geocentric universe is a myth, then everything is open to question. So, everything was up for grabs. All literary conventions were challenged, all mathematical and scientific theories questioned. What replaced them was in many case, for lack of a better word, utter crap, with no substance or empircal validation. This is what Voltaire is satirizing. 10

It has been said that a satirist saves his most biting rhetoric for his own people. How is this reinforced in Chapters 21-22?

In these Chapters, Candide and Martin talk about France. When Candide asks Martin if he has ever been there, Martin replies by stating all the negative aspects of the country. He calls its inhabitants fools who think they are witty. He then states that there are 3 main occupations of France: "making love, backbiting, and talking nonsense"(94). 10

What is the target of Chapter 23? What does its brevity suggest about Voltaire's attitude toward that target.

The target of chapter 23 is England. What is said about England in chapter 23 is mostly negative things, about how they spend a lot of money over a small piece of land on Canada's border and how they execute admirals for not killing enough enemies. It's brevity suggests that Voltaire doesn't care too much for England because he quickly points outs its flaws, and then doesn't talk about it anymore. 10

What does Pococurante's name mean in Italian? Does it fit? How so?*

Pococurante's name in Italian means to give little care; to be apathetic. The name fits the character because within the story, Martin noticed how Pococrante's owns a vast number of (volume of) books he has read and after finishing them, all were uninteresting to him. He would give criticism about all the books he read, but also they did not please him. 10

Given that Voltaire is an author, speculate as to Pococurante's function in the novel?

Pococurante is Voltaire's dig at literary critics. Voltaire thought they were bitter, failed artists who hated everything that anyone wrote because they could not do it themselves. 10

Pococurante specifically focuses on Milton? Given this, what can be assumed about Voltaire's attitude toward Milton?*

Because Pococurante is a negatively portrayed character, representing ignorance and pessimism, his enemy, Milton, must be Voltaire's friend. Voltaire appreciates Paradise Lost by Milton, agreeing with his purpose for writing it. 10

Given #39, why is this a logical assumption, considering Voltaire's rationale for writing Candide?

Voltaire and Milton share similar purposes, to "justify the ways of God to men". Voltaire believes moreso in a clockmaker God but in both, God is not guilty or responsible wrongdoings or evil.Elaborate on Milton Milton believes that Satan is the responsible for evil, and is seen as the anti-hero in his book Paradise Lost. This book explains exactly how men went from being obedient to God to being disobedient. However, Milton believes that humans have potential even though they have flaws.10

What is Divine Right? How does Voltaire satirize this concept in Chapter 26? *

Divine Right is that God had chosen a monarch (and future generations) the right to rule. People believed that God granted the person to rule rather than to have people choose their leader. Voltaire satirized the concept of chapter 26 by mentioning the five kings he meets at the inn. The kings each had suffered loss from war, as well as their land and Voltaire satirizes their losses (and also the meaning of the Divine Right). Voltaire was trying to show that he did not believe in the Divine Right because if the kings were supposedly chosen by God to rule their land then ended up losing everything, then the idea of the Divine Right was losing its meaning within Voltaire's time period. (When a normal person like Candide becomes wealthier than the kings who said they had the Divine Right, then people were probably losing the meaning of the Divine Right). 10

How is this satire consistent with the Deist perspective of the novel?

Voltaire criticizes kings' belief of Divine Right under the foundation of his Deistic beliefs that God has nothing to do with peoples' everyday lives, he solely created the human race and did not interfere again. Voltaire does not believe that God gives kings their power, and he makes the 5 kings look foolish when they lose everything and Candide is able to acquire more wealth than them; this is shameful and makes fun of them considering that they are kings. 10

Chapters 26-30 provide a detailed summary of all the horrifying things that happened to the principals in the novel. What is the purpose of this section?

This section reveals that Pangloss and the baron who Candide stabbed are still alive. Furthermore, Cacambo is enslaved, and Cunegonde is now hideous. I think the purpose of this section was to refute the concept of "all is for the best" that has been repeated throughout the novel. While the characters turned out to be alive, they suffered greatly and despite being granted their lives, Candide's ultimate desire and dream was to be with the beautiful Cunegonde. However, it turns out that she becomes uglier almost as each day passes. All of this supports Voltaire's deist views because it shows that while God is present, in a sense he abandoned the people. 10

How does Pangloss rationalize all this horror?

Through all the horror that Pangloss and his companions endure, Pangloss forces himself to remain optimistic. Because he is a philosopher, he must remain positive and stick by his original beliefs and teachings such as his "the best of all worlds" theory. Liebnitz is actually mentioned when Pangloss is speaking of his unshaken views and his "pre-established harmony," which states that peoples' actions directly affect themselves, but basically that people all indirectly affect one another. As long as Pangloss has his views and philosophy, he believes all is still well. (Even after dying and magically coming back to life).10

At the end of Chapter 28, Voltaire drops his allegorical guise. How so and to what end?

Up to this point, Voltaire's characters have all been allegorical. At the end of 28, however, he drops this guise when Candide asked Pangloss whether he still believes that all is for the best. Then Voltaire drops this allegorical guise when he has Pangloss reply that he is pretty much Liebniz. Voltaire is so committed to his position that he wants to make sure that everyone knows who his primary target is. He waits until the end, but wants to make sure than anyone who has not figured it out yet now knows. 10

In chapter 30, Candide asserts and then reiterates the position that "we must cultivate our garden." What does he mean by this and how does this metaphor provide the denouement to the novel?

Candide, Pangloss, Cunegedon, etc retreat to literally cultivating a garden. Pagloss says, "when man was placed in the Garden of Eden, he was put there to dress it and to keep it". After going through the worst rapes, murders, butcheries, missing buttcheeks...this chain of events is the best of all possible worlds because without it, they would not "be here eating candied fruit and pistachio nuts", claims Pangloss, but at this point, all this philosophy and talk and thinking doesnt even matter anymore, because they must "go and work in the garden". Candide's statement that translates to "we must cultivate our garden" signifies Voltaire's Self-Determinist view. Pangloss reflects on Liebnitz's philosophy of the butterfly effect, stating that all the events that happened prior in the novel had to happen for them to end up in the nice garden. Candide spent the whole novel agreeing with Pangloss and his views, and he agrees, such as Deists (and Voltaire) believe that yes, God put this garden here, but it is up to us to determine our own fate and in a sense "cultivate our own gardens." It shows that in the end, Candide was a self-determinist because the quote, "go and work in the garden" resembled that they had to earn their way after life and that God does not help them in any way in their life; God exists although he does not infere in our lives. This is Voltaire's Deist manifesto. 10

1.) What is Sartre attempting to accomplish in his essay?

Sartre says that critics accuse Existentialists of being subjectivist and quietist. Sartre says that they are subjectivists, but not in the way the critics mean. For the subjectivist critique, Sartre says, "the word 'subjectivism' has two meanings, and our opponents play on the two. Subjectivism means, on the one hand, that an individual chooses and makes himself; and, on the other, that it is impossible for man to transcend human subjectivity. The second is the essential meaning of existentialism." (Sartre's opponents equate subjectivism with solipsism, but existentialists are acutely aware of their responsibility in shaping others' destinies.)

As for the quietist view point, people tend to see the philosophy of existentialism as "negative," due to the lack of a deity and "divine purpose" (AKA Absurdism), but existentialism carries a much more positive notion. Existentialism says that people have complete freedom and they are entirely in control of their lives, so they are not doomed by fate or predestination. Sartre wrote the essay to debunk these two critiques.
10

What are the two sorts of "charges" made against his position? (DH)

see number 1

Why does Sartre believe it is necessary to try to "explain" or "define" existentialism?

see number 1

What does he mean by the phrase "existence precedes essence"? ©

Claim of existentialism which reverses the traditional view that nature of a thing is more fundamental than it's existence. This is the existentialists slogan, and their way of saying that we create our own nature. It goes against the saying "essence precedes existence" which tells us that we have a predisposed nature given to us off the bat and it determines our overall place and meaning. The term "existence precedes essence" is opposing this saying that we are put into existence first without any predetermined meanings or values, through actions we decide our essence or nature. 10

What is subjectivity? (DH)

Claim of existentialism which reverses the traditional view that nature of a thing is more fundamental than its existence. "Subjectivism means, on the one hand, that an individual chooses and makes himself; and, on the other, that it is impossible for man to transcend human subjectivity. The second meaning is that when we say that man chooses his own self, meaning that everyone of us does likewise; by that in making the choice, he also chooses all men." the critics of existentialism misinterpret as solipsism but Sartre says its incorrect because they also recognize their responsibility to other people because they impact the people that you have had contact with. 10

What does Sartre mean when he writes, "Man is condemned to be free"? (S)

Man is free. All his actions are his own. This is accompanied by a great feeling of anguish, for man is entirely responsible for his actions and the effects they have on others, if something goes wrong, only he is to blame. Thus, man is condemned by his freedom to make choices based on the possible consequences his actions may have. 10

Why does Sartre deal with the issue of "anguish"? What examples does he cite to explain what he means by it?

Anguish is the extreme anxiety caused by the important decision-making that will affect not only one person but other people that are influenced by that one person making the decision.He uses the example of Abraham in that Abraham heard God's voice but he had no way of knowing whether it was God or not. If Abraham did not think that was God and he didn't kill his son then he would be going against God; however, if Abraham did kill his son and that was not the voice of God then he would be a murderer for killing his own son. The fact that there's no God means that we can't ask him to intervene for us or helps us with our decisions. So all our decisions are ours to make and that makes us anguished. 10

ism and why does Sartre say that it is easy (but misguided) to accuse existentialists of quietism? (DH)

Quietism is the attitude of people who say "Let people do what I can't do." Sartre says that it's easy to accuse existentialists of quietism because sometimes they will chose not to do a certain thing but that doesn't make them a quietist. He says that it is easier for other people to accuse existentialists of quietism because they believe in free will. Critics say that because there is no punishment and no reward for their actions, their actions cannot be noble or that they will not take an active, fulfilling approach to life. 10

How does his treatment of "anguish" help him to respond to the charge of "quietism"? (S)

It is the condition of their action. They choose an action from all of these different possibilities. Anguish only applies to situations in which you must make a grave decision. Existentialist believe that since they are the architests of their own fate, they must make conscientious decisions that will not result badly for others. Because of this pressure, anguish is present. Quietists believe that since there is no God, why should they even care to help others or make the right decisions because there is no reward or punishment for your actions. The fact that existentialists believe in the presence of anguish when they decipher their actions proves that they can distinguishable from Quietists. 10

What is "forlornness" and what does it have to do with Sartre's position?

The idea that "God does not exist and that we have to face all the consequences of this." There is no morality, right or wrong, and no ultimate judge. Sartre's position is that nothing will change if god does not exist and the idea of god will die out by itself with no consequences. Forlornness is the idea that since there is no God to rely on, you are all alone; there is no God to help you through trials and therefore you feel depressed because of your loneliness. Sartre believes in Existentialism which does not believe in God. The consequence of having no God to lean on or pray to for help with your problems takes a toll on your emotions, leaving you with a sort of loney and depressed feeling. 10

Why is God a crucial feature of his explanation of this notion? (DH)

Existentialits don't believe in God. God doesn't guide or help us. He has no effect on us. Existentialists don't believe that God exists, but even if God does exist it wouldn't matter because God exerts no control over human activity. The connection to quietism is that critics believe that since there is no god or retribution, existentialists are forlorn and prone to doing nothing (or nothing good) because there is no impetus. Even though existentialists don't believe in God, they feel they must do good things in order to better the world unlike quietists who do nothing because they have no one to answer to. 10

How does the story of the boy faced with the choice of joining the forces fighting for freedom or helping his mother illustrate his positions? (S)

When the boy is faced with the situation, he has two options. Either not go to war and ensure that he saves his mother, resulting in only saving one person. Or , he can go to war, saving many, but risking the possibility to save his mother. This is a great example of existentialists who are experiencing anguish when they come across decisions like this. At this point, they are "architects of their own faith", mentioning they don't believe in the idea of God's will. 10

How does the story of the young man joining the Jesuits illustrate Sartre's positions?

The young man fails at a variety of jobs prior to becoming a Jesuit. On the surface, people might applaud the man's decision to devote his life to God, seeing it as a life of sacrifice and service to the community. However, his decision is actually very solipsistic because he cannot make a living at anything else. The story suggests that existentialism can be easily misinterpreted and confused for quietism but is not, while religion can be misinterpreted as selflessness but can be solipsistic. 10

How does Sartre respond to charges that Existentialism is inherently solipsistic*? (Dh)

see number 1

Briefly explain the concept of Deism as expressed by Voltaire, Rousseau, et al. (S)

"The word "Deism" is derived from the Latin word for God: 'Deus.' Deism involves the belief in the existence of God, on purely rational grounds, without any reliance on revealed religion or religious authority." It also involves the theory about the 'clock maker universe'. Basically God created the universe and everything, but he stepped back and let man have self determination.They don't believe in predetermined salvation/ damnation and don't believe the direct influence of God in a person's decision. 8 However, they do believe that God created the universe. They also do not believe in the beliefs of the Bible, Qur' ran, etc. They believe that God created the universe. It also played a big part in the separation of church and state. They don't believe in the Trinity that Christians believe in. They also pray, but to thank God for his works. 10

Explain the concept of the "clockmaker God."

This relates to deism. It is the belief that God exists on only rational grounds. Deists believe that God created the universe, but then stepped back, allowing self-determination. He does not interfere with the things or what happens on Earth. Humans have free-will."God created the universe He wound the stem, backed off. Allowed everything to run according to natural law." 10

How is Existentialism similar to Deism? (DH)

Deism is the belief in the existence of God, on purely rational grounds, without any reliance on revealed religion or religious authority. Existentialists and Deists both believe that they are the "architects of their own fate", meaning that they both agree that existence preceeds essence. The difference is that Deists believe in God and that he created us and we make our own decisions from there. Existentialists believe that we were put on Earth to make our own decisions, but not by God. 10

How is it is different? (S)

In Deism, God created the universe and then God stepped back and let the people choose what to do in their own life. However in Existentialism, man chooses everything for himself. They don't believe in a God. The difference is that one believes in a limited role for God and one does not believe in a God at all. Virtually they are the same belief, but Deism believes that he created the clockmaker universe and Existentialists are inherently Atheistic. 10

What is "free will"? (C)*

Free will has to do with the idea that we can make our own decisions and choices in life rather than God choosing everything for us and planning everything out. Free will is the ability to act on your own without the constraint of fate. 10

Discuss Christian Existentialism vis-a-vis Deism and Sartrian Existentialism. (DH)

Christian Existentialism says that the self relies on God, and in the same way, our image of God relies on what we believe about him. It believes that God sent his son as the sacrifice for our sins, and that we find salvation through our faith in God. They are not compelled to live good lives because they fear the consequence but because our actions affect others.

The Christian Existentialist relies on the objectivity of God and salvation through him, but this objectivity relies on the subjectivity of oneself. Christian Existentialists believe that God sent Christ as the exemplar (the example) for how we should live our lives.
Sartre's views on existentialism are that there is no God, and that we are the architects of our own fate. Man makes man what man is. Just like Christian Existentialists, they believe that the decisions that one makes affect others, and so one should be wise in the things he chooses to do. Existentialists aren't sure if creation precedes essence or if essence precedes existence. Either way, it is the responsibility of the person to live a noble life, because of the way it affects others.

Deists believe that there is one supreme God and that he created people but then stepped away. We should revere and worship this god, and we do this by practical morality. When we do good works to worship God, we are rewarded.10

How do these philosophies differ from the traditional Jewish, Christian, Muslim, Hindu and Buddhist views? (S)*

Both of these philosophies differ from the traditional religion, because they don't necessarily associate themselves with a religion. They both are saying the people make their own choices. These philosophies do not have a direct relationship with God unlike other religions. In Deism, they believe that God created the universe, but he stepped back and let man do his own thing. In Existentialism, they do not even believe in a God and they also believe that you can create your own destiny. However, in the other religions, your destiny is predetermined. What is each religion's belief system? What does each believe? Christians believe in God's divine providence, and that Jesus Christ died for our sins. Muslims believe that one's actions determine his destiny, that God (Allah) is the all knowing, and that the prophet Muhammad was the perfect role model. Jews believe that the eternal Messiah will bring all the Jews to heaven because they are the "chosen people". Hindus believe in the teachings of ancient sages and scriptures like the Vedas. Buddhists belve in reaching nirvana through internal enlightenment. 10

What is Absurdism?

Absurdism is a philosophical idea that there is no such thing as God, heaven, or hell, and because of this, there is no reward for doing anything praiseworthy in life, so why even try. Absurdist are pessimists and believe that the world will always continue to be evil. 10

How can Absurdism be seen as an outgrowth of Existentialism? (D)

The reason that Absurdism can be seen as an outgrowth of Existentialism is because it is an extension of Existentialism. It is existentialism taken to a pessimistic extreme. Existentialism believes that we are the architects of our own fate. They believe that there is no afterlife, no god, and everything is how we craft our own experience. They also believe that existence precedes essence. Like this, absurdism is adherently self- determinate and atheistic but it is the pessimistic side of existentialism. Existentialism is the idea that this is all we have so make the most of it, but absurdism believes this is all we have so why bother? 10

How does Absurdism differ from Existentialism? (S)

"Absurdism is the more fatalistic flip side of
existentialism. Whereas existentialists and absurdists both believe that
human beings are bereft because of the absence of God, existentialists
view that fact as an inducement to make the most of this life because no
afterlife waits. Absurdists, on the other hand, are pessimists, seeing no
point in maximizing human experience without hope of eternal reward."
Both Absurdism and Existentialism believe that human beings are desolate because of the absence of God. Existentialists believe that you have to make the most out life because there is no afterlife. Absurdists are pessimists and believe there is no point in making the most out of life because there is no hope for an eternal life. 10

To what other concept previously mentioned above is Absurdism similar? How so?

Absurdism is similar to Quietism because they are both atheist and both agree that there is no heaven, hell, or God and are pessimistic about it. They pretty much have no incentive to be good or bad because you won't be punished or rewarded. Absurdists are pessimistic and see no point in caring about how they act; they see no point to do anything, like the Quietists, who just don't do anything. 10

How does Sartre make a distinction between Existentialism and atheism? (DH)

Sartre says that existentialists don't believe in God, but don't wear themselves out trying to disprove God's existence. Rather, they contend that even if God did exist, nothing would change. Atheists are sure about their disbelief in God, and they are much more outspoken when it comes to belief. Atheists say that there is no God, and if you believe that there is one, you're an idiot. Neither of them believe in God, but existentialists find the fact that God doesn't exist distressing. Existentialists ARE atheists, but they are not militantly so. 10

Sartre died at 74 of lung cancer resulting from lifelong cigarette smoking . Camus died at 46, struck by a car that jumped the curb. How is each man's demise appropriate to the philosophy that he espoused? (S)

Sartre's demise was appropriate to his philosophy because he thought that every human has to continue to live disregarding what happens in their environment., and enjoy their life. Ironically, his philosophy relates to his death because he found enjoyment in smoking throughout his life, which lead to his death of lung cancer.
Camus' fatal incident is appropriate to his philosophy as well because he believed that humans are isolated in an alien universe in which you are born and die as nothingness in an absurd world. His sudden, tragic death at such a young age during the height of his career demonstrates how an individual's existence is of little importance. He viewed everything we do is like pushing a rock up a hill, and every time it gets to the top rolls back down (AKA Absurdism) and his random and sudden death displayed that everything we work for is all absurd because we turn into nothingness the moment we die, so anything we do has no benefit to our life. 10

Read the opening paragraph. What does it reveal immediately about Mersault?

Mersault does not have close contact with his mother nor does it seem that he has a close connection with her, because after he reads the telegram of his mother's death he shrugs it off and goes back to the thoughts he had about when she died which just reinforces his distance from his mother. The opening sentence is so offhanded, "Maman died today" that it sets the tone for the rest of the novel. 10

How would you describe Mersault's personality at this point? Provide at least two statements to reinforce this.

He is solipsistic.
The fact that he did not care to even know his mother's age shows this, as well as when he questions whether it is right to smoke in front of his mother's body or not, and eventually does because "it doesn't matter." He didn't even bother to look at his mother again because he would gain nothing from it, and kept her casket closed.10

Describe the Camus's writing style in Part I, specifically the syntax, detail and cohesion of the paragraphs.

His writing style in part I is very flat. He uses almost no emotion, which is not what is expected of a son who is grieving of his mother's death. His writing is affectless, and the cohesion of his paragraphs does not reflect fluidity and emotion. Syntax? Sentence structure? 7 The syntax is a lot more fragmented in the beginning with having periods break up the sentence structure, failing to have an antecedent that logically flows, and it's a more simplistic process of thought structure. Towards the end of the book he shows his more in depth thought process by having sentences that flow logically and also includes a precedent to his thoughts. Through the progression of the book, Camus begins to logically fit thoughts to one another rather than having fragments and pauses that break up a clear thought process.
Camus uses very short and simple words in the first part. This goes along with solipsistic ideas, showing that Mersault lacks determination. 10

How does the narrative style mentioned in question #3 reflect Mersault's personality?

It reflects Mersault's to the point and logical nature. In the first part of the book, there are very little adjectives. This reflect's Mersault's Nihilist/Absurdist life view, seeing no point in anything much less small details. Also, in the trial it is said that Mersault picks his words carefully and doesn't talk too much, further reflecting the small amount of adjectives.10

Why was it odd that Madam Meursault desired a religious burial? What does her change of heart suggest about her? What does it suggest about Mersault?

Madam Meursault was never in her life a religious woman, so it was odd that she desired a religious burial. It suggests that as she neared death, she embraced a religion to ease her mind of her approaching demise, as a normal person would. It suggests that Meursault was not raised in a religion, since his mother had "never given a thought to religion," which implies that Meursault is an atheist. 10

Describe the "wake." Is Mersault's behavior typical of a mourning relative? Why do you suppose he acts this way?

No Mersault's behavior is not typical of a mourning relative because instead of shedding any tears or showing any emotion, he sits by his mother in a solemn attitude while he defiles the room she's placed in by smoking a cigarette. He most likely acts this way because he really has no strong connection with his mother therefore he isn't really capable of showing great emotion or sympathy for her. This is mainly because of the fact that Mersault is a solipsist and nothing but his being matters at that point. The fact that his mother is dead or alive has no effect on him or his life. 10

How is Mersault's decision to close the casket reflective of his personality as discussed in #1, 2 and 4 above?

Meursault's decision to close the casket reflects his solipsistic personality, in which he reinforces that he cares about nothing but himself. At this point, Meursault has no desire to see his mother again, because he just thinks that she is a closed chapter of his life. He sees no point in looking at her face again.10

Describing the funeral, Mersault goes into great detail about the weather. Coupled with question #4, what does this suggest about him?

Mersault's describing of only the detail of the weather shows how little he actually cares about Maman. She obviously means very little to him, due to his solipsistic nature of only believing that he is sentient. He doesn't once mention that he feels sad for the death of his mother, or even anything emotional at all. He even went as far to say that the day was going to be beautiful. This is not something that a person who really cared about his mother would say. If he really cared, he probably would not even mention the beautiful weather. It was also intensely hot that day, and he talked about how you could either die of heat exhaustion or get sunburned. Him describing this does not show a great deal of sadness for his mother who just died. Mersault is solipsistic in this part of the novel because he is only concerned about the heat and the discomfort it causes him rather than his mother's situation of being dead. 10

What is the relationship between Maman and Mr. Perez?

Mr. Perez and Maman had built a strong relationship, They became "almost inseparable". He valued their relationship (as seen when he struggles to keep up in the funeral procession) and there is no evidence of the amount of value that Maman put into the relationship, therefore we are left wondering the amount of importance and seriousness that Maman held in the relationship.10

What is ironic about Mr. Perez's inability to keep up with the funeral procession?

The irony of this is that he is considered Maman's "fiance" and obviously cares about her very much, whereas Mersault can and does keep up with the procession and he doesn't seem to care at all for her. Mersault had a rapid gait during the procession. This shows that he really just wanted to get the whole thing over with. He would not even wait for a poor old man. 10

Discuss the possible metaphorical nature of the fact that Mersault mentions that he frequently "loses sight" of Perez during the process.

The death of Meursault's mother isn't as hard on him as it is on Perez. He was practically her soulmate at the nursing home in which she resided. The fact was that Perez was the only memory of any emotional connection to his mother Meursault had left, since he really never felt any sorrow because of his mother's death. As he loses sight of him, the sorrowful emotion of his mother's death further weakens to the point where it diminishes.10

Why do suppose Camus included this character in the novel?

I think that Camus included Perez's character in the novel to establish Meursault's characteristic of not caring for his mother. Being a stranger to his mother, Perez was more connected to her than Meursault was. Camus displays Meursault as a quintessential solipsist who manages to not care about anyone but himself. Perez is one of several foils for Mersault in the novel. 10

Read the descriptive final paragraph of Chapter One. What is conspicuously absent from the passage?

What is conspicuously absent from this passage is that he does not make a reference to his grief over his mother's death. He mentions his joy, but he neglects to notice his sadness and grief, which is unusual for a person who just lost his mother.10

Describe in detail Mersault's activities on the Sunday after Maman's funeral. Do these activities strike you as appropriate, given the fact that his mother had just died?

Mersault spends his Sunday after his mother's funeral at the beach where he runs into Marie, a former coworker of his. At night, he goes to the movies with her and then they have sex at night. These activities were inappropriate because mentioning the fact the women that gave birth to him just died, he should have at least some emotion. However, this situation reinforces his solipsism.10

The last paragraph on page 20 details Mersault's sexual encounter with Marie. Do you get the sense that such liaisons were common for Mersault? Cite at least one passage to validate your position.

He says "I gave her a kiss, but not a good one." This suggests that he has had this type of encounter at least a few times in the past, for him to have a point of reference. Additionally, he expresses no emotion about the encounter, simply describing the physical aspect of it, suggesting that it is not special to him. This also is a reinforcement of Mersault's continuous solipsistic views because he's focused on how his performance was on the act of kissing, nowhere does he refer to how she had performed, showing that he is yet again solipsistic. 10

Given #15 above, what is conspicuous about his description of the encounter?

The conspicuous part of this description is that none of it is about Mersault's emotions, it's almost as if he's listing the events that happened. It is also only a few sentences long. This shows that Mersault only cares about Marie for the sex, and not emotionally. He doesn't care about her, he only cares about himself because he is a solipsist. 10

What connection might be drawn from a comparison between his description of the funeral and his description of the sexual encounter?

both passages are impersonal, it uses visual adjectives, but it does not make emotional connections, showing little emotional involvement. although he uses vivid imagery in both scenes, he never shows true emotion.
The connection between both of the descriptions is that in moments where there should a be a significant emotional moment, he is more focused on the visual and physical aspects of each and how it had affected him in a solipsistic view. 10

In the last paragraph on page 24, Mersault says, "It occurred to me....really, nothing had changed." Given what had transpired over the course of the previous three days, what can the reader infer from this statement?

The reader can infer that Mersault has not been affected by the death of his mother, as well as evidence that he may have a personality disorder, or that he has an solipsistic viewpoint when looking at life, unaffected by coming and going of relationships that he makes with people. Marie? He Doesn't even care about Marie, because when she asks to marry him, he says that to him it's indifferent. 10

Mersault's description of the cloth roller towel is five sentences long, exactly the same length as his description of his
sexual encounter with Marie (see #15 above). What, if any, insight does this provide into Mersault's psyche?

This gives insight to Mersault's absurdism in that he thinks about a cloth towel roller as much as he thinks of a sexual encounter. Cloth towels can be taken off of the roller and disposed of, which signifies that he is interested in Marie solely for sex. To him, Marie is of the same importance as something he wipes his hands on.10

Describe Salmano's relationship with his dog at this point in the novel.

Salmanos relationship with his dog is that he beats the dog routinely, however, Mersault displays kindness to the dog, which is recognized in court. The contrast between his feelings for his dog and Mersault's for his mother contribute to Mersault's convinction. 10

Who is Raymond Sintes? What is "the word around the neighborhood" regarding Raymond?

Raymond Sintes is one of Mersault's neighbors, and "the word around the neighborhood" was that he was a pimp.10

What prompted Raymond's fight with "the man"? What prompted Raymond to beat his girlfriend "till she bled"?

The man told Raymond to stop hitting his sister, he did not like "the man" telling him what to do. Raymond beat his girlfriend "till she bled" because he suspected her of cheating on him since she had more money than he gave her.10

Having completed #20-23, speculate as to the function of Salmano and Raymond in the novel.

Raymond and Salamano are Meursault's foils in the novel. Meursault is detached while Raymond and Salmano are both very emotionally expressive. The purpose of this is to show how even though Raymond and Salamano had no relation with either Raymond's mistress or Salamano's dog, they still cared about them enough to show emotion and actually make an effort towards them. However, even though Meursault's mother has passed away, his biological mother, he shows no emotion and has no action upon his mother's death.10

Why does Mersault cultivate a friendship with Raymond? Why does he agree to help him by writing the letter? Is this decision consistent with Mersault's personality? How so?

Mersault cultivates a relationship with Raymond to reinforce his carelessness for the world. He agrees to help in the letter because it doesn't really affect him in any way, it's just something he's doing. This is consistent with his personality because he's one who cares about nothing but himself. Whatever he does for others is completely irrelevant to his being.10

Having read the first three chapters, into what "perversion" category(ies) would you put Mersault?

Solipsism because he is still going along with life (ex. attending the funeral) but he only cares about himself and his own feelings. He is self absorbed, and shows little to no emotion towards other people because he could not care less about other people's lives and what other people are thinking. 10

What happens to Salamano's dog? How does Salamano react? Significance? Compare the relationship between Salmano and his dog to that of Meursault and his mother.

Salamano's dog gets lost. Salamano is first swearing about the dog, but then he starts breaking down and cries in his room. Unlike Salamano and his dog, Mersault does not feel empathy towards his mother. He doesn't mourn after her death. However, Salamano mourns and is sad that his dog ran away. The relationships are different because Salamano has the ability to show affection towards animals and other beings (animals or relatives) and Mersault can't even wrap his head around why he should be sad over his mother's death because their relationship meant so little to him. 10

What opportunity does Meursault's boss offer? What offer does Marie propose? In your opinion, is Meursault's behavior normal regarding his job and his girlfriend? Why/why not?

He offers Meursault an offer to go work at an office in Paris that he was planning on opening up. Meursault says yes, but"it's all really the same for him". Marie asks Meursault to marry him, and Meursault says that "it didn't make a difference to me and that we could if she wanted to". I don't think that Meursault is acting normally regarding his job and his girlfriend. He should feel emotion towards both of these actions, but to him it is all indifferent. Meursault does not show excitement that he gets to travel or happiness that Marie asks him to marry him. He does not show affection towards both of these. He doesn't care about them. 10

What explanation can you offer as to why Meursault follows the woman from Celeste's?

Meursault follows the woman from Celeste's because he didn't have anything better to do. He had nothing else to do instead. He says that it was hard for him to believe that she actually exists, but after a few minutes of following her, he forgot about her. As we can see, Mersault cares about no one but himself because he is a solipsist. He believes that the universe is irrational and meaningless and that's why he forgets about her so easily, she's not important. 10

During a brief discussion between Salamano and Meursault, what new information does Salamano convey about Meursault's Maman? Significance?

In yet another examination of Mersault's solipsism, Salamano tells him that people in the area don't think highly of Meursault since he sent his mom to a home, even though he knows that he must have loved her very much. This is significant because he says he is sure he loved his mother even though an outside viewer would never think he would be able to love. He compares his love for his dog to how he is feeling about his dog at the moment. Salamano truly misses his missing dog, even though he beat him. Meursault sent Maman to a nursing home and never directly says he loves her. This is also significant because people assume that Meursault doesn't really have a care in the world. They can tell that he only cares about himself and nothing else really matters to him. Whatever happens in the past is irrelevant to his life in the present and he only pays attention to the future because he doesn't let his past affect him. Unlike Meursault, Salamano wants to understand the world and find it's meaning. He tries to comfort Meursault by saying he must have loved his mother, but Salamano is comforting himself more than he is comforting Meursault. He does this because his dog ran away, trying to make himself feel better. 10

Interpret Meursault's statement on p. 53: "The blazing sand looked red to me now."

It foreshadows the soon death of the Arab approaching Meursault walking towards him on the hot sand. It also talks about the flashback to when he was walking to the church where his mother was after her death. Saying that the blazing sand looked red to me now shows that he is thinking about and also seeing death everywhere he looks. The sand looks red because it reminds him of the sun. The sun doesn't help soothe him like other parts of nature do, the sun is harsh. It also foreshadows the color of the Arab's blood after Meursault shoots him. 10

When Meursault encounters the lone Arab, he is once again overcome by the sun's heat. What event does the heat force him to recall?

It made him recall the blazing sun, while he was walking to the church where his mother's funeral was.10

What occurs to "shatter the harmony" of Meursault's day?

He kills the Arab. Meursault claims that the trigger "gave", and that "shattered the harmony of the day". Once the harmony has been shattered, he fires at the Arab four more times. Not that he does not feel anything for the Arab. He is just disturbed that the murder will run his day. 10

On page 59 (last sentence), what is meant by "it was like knocking four quick times on the door of unhappiness." This is an epiphanic statement. Of what is Meursault made aware for the first time?

Meursault is made aware of the fact that he doesn't care if he gets caught for killing the Arab. To Meursault, life is meaningless. Killing someone will not make a difference in his life. Raymond is trying to find the meaning of life, therefore killing the Arab would have gotten in the way of his journey. He really had no reason to kill the Arab, however his solipsistic views did not stop him because to him life was meaningless. 10

As the second part opens, what has happened to Meursault? Is he taking his circumstances seriously? Explain

At the beginning of this chapter he is in jail for killing the Arab. He does not react to his imprisonment with any guilt or regret. He does not take his circumstances seriously. For example he finds it "convenient" that the court is giving him an attorney. He also finds his meetings with Magistrate fun and finds himself analyzing him, and ignoring the fact that he is the enemy. 10

What explanation does Meursault give regarding his "nature"?

His unsatisfied longings for nature, the ocean, cigarettes, and sex constitute, in his mind, his punishment. He reflects upon his life and different events that he remembers because he starts to experience metacognition. He spends as much time as possible sleeping and recalling memories from his apartment and a story from a newspaper he found in his cell. He now considers himself an Absurdist, and he doesn't want to change his beliefs for society. Instead, he carries out his beliefs and gets executed in front of everyone. 10

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