What are the most common elements in the human body, and in the crust of the Earth?
The most common elements that are in the human body and in the crust of the Earth are oxygen, carbon, hydreogen, nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sulfur, and sodium.
What was Dalton's Atromic Theory? Upon what was it based? What part of it are no longer accepted?
Dalton's Stomic Theory states the main ideas of his theory/model. Dalton's model explained the important observations such as the law of constant composition.
What was Rutherford's model of the atom? Upon what was it based on?
Rutherford's model for the atom had a number of essential features, including the nucleus, which contains the bulk of the atomic mass, and the number of electrons that circle around the nucleus.
What are ions? What are the types of ions? How do they form? How are their charges determined?
An ion is an atom or group of atoms that has a positive or a negative charge. There are two types of ions, cations and anions. Cations are positive ly charged ions, while anions are negatively charged ions. The charge of the atom is determined by either the lose or gain of electrons.
How are names of ionic compounds written from their formulas?
When naming an ionic compound the cation is always named first, then the anion. A simple cation takes its name from the name of the element, and an anion is named by taking the first part of the element name and adding an -ide to the end.
What are the benefits of scientific notation ? How are numers larger than one writter, how is one written, and how are numbers smaller than one written in scientific notation?
Scientific notation is a method for makign a very large number or a very small number more compact and easier to write. Scientific notation express the number as a product of a number between one and ten and the appropriate power of 10. A larger number is written with a positive power/exponent, while a small number is written with a negative power/exponent.
What is the proper way to make a measurement?
Whenver a measurement is made with a device (ex. a ruler) an estimate is required. Then the measurement is recorded in significant figure.
What is a significant figure? Why are they important?
Significant figures are the certain digits and the first uncertain digit of a measurment. Sig figs are important because almost all measurments are uncertain.
What is dinmensional analysis? How is it used?
Dimensional analysis is the process of using conversion factors to change from one unit to another. To convert from one unit to another, use the equivalence statement that relates the two unites, choose the appropriate conversion factor, multiply the quantity to be converted by the conversion factor, and use the correct number of significant digits.
How is the empirical formula of a compound determinded from its percent compostion?
The percents are changed into masses, then moles (using the molar mass of each element), and subsequently, a mole ratio. This can be used to determine the empirical formula of the compound.
How are the mole/mass/volume any combination relationships between he participants in a reaction determined mathematically when the limiting reactant is given?
When the limiting reactant of is given, the mass/mole/volume of the product can be determined by first converting the mass of the limiting reactant to moles. To convert the mass of the limiting reactant to mole, you multiply the mass by 1 mole/the molar mass. Then, you multiply the product by the given mole of the product over the limiting reactant (which is given in the chemical equation). Then, you convert the mole of the product to mass by multiply the product by the molar mass of the product over one mole.