Chapter 16 Reading Guide

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chpt 16: the world economy

what 2 events caused europeans to become more aware of the wider world by 1500

crusades and mongol invasion

how were smaller ships used on early voyages propelled

by oars

new type of ships

deep-draft, round-hulled, capable of carrying heavy armaments (military supplies)

what devices helped voyages

compass, cannon, guns

how were the europeans able to go farther and protect themselves

could kill and intimidate from distance

2 reasons why portugal's rulers were drawn into excitement of discovery

potential harm they can cause to muslims and thirst for wealth

what did they brink back from expeditions

slaves, spices, stories of gold hoards

why were sailors looking for india

direct contact = easy access to luxury cloths and spices

what year did they round the cape of good hope

1488

who did the portugese face hostility from

muslim merchants (muslims dominated trade)

what 2 things did the portugese have to trade

iron pots and a lot of gold

where did they set up forts

on african coast and in india

name of explorer who gave the new world its name

amerigo vespucci

spain and portugal fought over the new world. who settled the matter

pope

which nations joined the global competition late but soon took the lead

france, england, hollance, britain (northern europe)

what was spain and portugal doing

digesting gains they already made

what did the dutch and british improve that helped them

design of oceanic vessels

after what and when was britain able to vie for dominance on the seas

battle w/ spanish armada in 1588

what was the english's main quest for

profit

what rights did the companies such as the east india company have

could raise armies and coin money (acted like independent govts.)

europe's dominance and the opening of atlantic and pacific had 3 consequences

international exchange of foods, diseases, products; new world economy; creation of conditions for colony formation

2 diseases brought to new world

smallpox and measles

% of native american population affected by diseases

80%

what animals were brought to america

horses and cattle

why did the muslims lose their power in international trade

defeated by spanish fleet in the battle of lepanto in 1571

what was china's attitude towards traders

govt. limited european ability to seize harbors outright

what did european traders do when direct control of area was not feasible

influence formed special conclaves in cities where western traders won special legal rights

in dependent areas not all people were mired in poverty. who was making a profit

african slave traders and princes who taxed trade

what led to the massive importation of slaves

decrease of the native population due to disease

what was china's attitude to new traders since they adhered to tradition

benefited through trade but was not interested in world trade and participated less than others

japanese fascinated what european products

guns and shipping

japanese leaders afraid of what so they encouraged..

western influence/impact... local gunmaking industry

between 17th and 19th century, japan was

in almost complete isolation

in india there was some trade but most attention went to

internal development and land-based expansion

how did russia fit into world economy

traded w/ nomadic groups

how did africa fit into the world economy

outside of slave-trading regions it was untouched by it

volume of trade increased in

17th century

western european demands for grains led to

increased eastern european production (which brought east euro. into world economy) and intensification of serfdom

india was not as dependent as who

latin america

what gave the europeans specal advantages when invading

guns, horses, iron weapons

what year did the first settlement begin and where and what were they looking for

panama 1509, searching for gold

who led this expedition

vasco de alboa

which violent and treacherous adventurer conquered the inca empire

francisco pizarro

who did the spanish control native populations

loosely controlled by colonial administrations back home

govt. land grants were given out to major proprieters (property owners) to recruit

settlers

french plan involved setting up

manorial estates under great lords w/ carefully restricted rights by the state

north american colonies were not valued as like the asia colonies. why

value of products not as great

what did the southern colonies produce

tobacco, sugar, and cotton

what type of govt/policy making was occurring in north american colonies

self-operated assemblies and church assemblies gave governing power to groups of elders/congregations

the colonists were consumers of polit. theories:

parliamentary ideas of john locke and Enlightenment materials

how did north american leaders see themselves

as part of a larger western world

why did great britain impose firmer limits on the colonists' modest economy

hope for higher tax revenues and to guarantee british market

contrast latin w/ north america in their attitudes towards mixing w/ native americans

latin america- combined to forge new cultural groups, whereas in north america they did not combine

what deterred the europeans from colonizing further into africa

climate, disease, and nonnavigable rivers

what were two important exceptions to this

the portugese search for slaves in angola and the dutch cape colony

when did the clash w/ local bantu farmers begin and end

1770-late 20th century

what 2 advantages did the british east india company have

1) access to ganges valley w/ station at calcutta 2) and great influence over govt. and excellent communication on ocean routes through the british navy

britain or france was more interested in mission work? why?

france b/c protestants committed to colonial missions

when did outright warfare erupt

1744 and again during seven years' war

what was the "black hole" of calcutta

120 englishmen were put into their own jails died from humidity and overcrowding

when did the full history of british india begin

late 18th cent. when british govt. became more active in indian administration

in most colonies, euro. admin. was fairly loose except in

south africa and the americas

what was the main impact of the colonies

press for economicadvantage for the home country by opening markets and prompting commercial production of cheap foods/raw materials

how were the mother countries affected by this system of colonies

increased wealth/capital, enhanced commercial charcter, less dependent on agriculture alone, higher tax revenues

how was china affected

prospered from imports of silver, though gains were checked by rapid population growth

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