Paper 2: WWI

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Causes and Effects, Names

Long term Causes of WWI

Alliances, Nationalism, Imperialism, Militarism

Short term Causes of WWI

Crisis Year, Militarism

Effects of WWI

Treaties, Disarmament, Country Boundaries, League of Nations

Peacemaking, Peacekeeping

Treaties, League of Nations, Crisis, Collective security

Franz Josef

Emperor of Austria-Hungary at the outbreak of World War I.

Nicholas II

the last czar of Russia who was forced to abdicate in 1917 by the Russian Revolution

Wilhelm II

The leader of Germany during WWI who was stubborn and was eager to show the rest of the world how powerful Germany had become.

David Lloyd George

Britain's prime minister at the end of World War I whose goal was to make the Germans pay for the other countries' staggering war losses

Bismarck

German statesman under whose leadership Germany was united (1815-1898)

Count Alfred von Schlieffen

Chief of the German general staff from 1891 to 1906. He outlined Germany's war plan by defeating the French and standing on the defensive against Russia all in a six week period.

Helmuth von Moltke

German Chief of Staff after the retirement of Schlieffen; revised the Schlieffen Plan and put it into action; he is blamed for being indecisive and giving bad orders in the face of war with France, specifically at the Battle of Marne

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Archduke of Austria Hungary assassinated by a Serbian in 1914. His murder was one of the causes of WW I.

Gavrilo Princip

Member of a terrorist organization called The Black Hand. Helped to end the optimistic Progressive era in America. Murdered Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife. Wanted to set Bosnia free from Austria-Hungary

Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg

Chancellor of Germany at start of war. He gave Austria a blank check as his 'unconditional' support.

Fritz Fischer

Claimed that Germany was solely to blame for WW1

Woodrow Wilson

28th President of the United States, led them into WW1

Ludendorff

general who assisted Hindenburg, he helped to defeat the Russians at Tannenburg and the Masurian Lake

Paul Von Hindenburg

President of the Weimar Republic of Germany who appointed Hitler Chancellor in 1933

Baron Manfred von Richthofen

Was a German fighter pilot known as "The Red Baron." He was the most successful flying ace of World War I, being officially credited with 80 confirmed air combat victories. This man was a member of an aristocratic family with many famous relatives.

T.E. Lawrence

colonel who led Britain to help the Arabs overthrow the Ottoman Empire. Known as a "romantic" hero, because after he led these attacks, the Middle East was under control of the Allies.

Clemenceau

French premier during World War I; he was the French representative at the Versailles Peace Conference in 1919

November Criminals

Hitler calls the politicians who signed the Treaty of Versailles the November Criminals, because they betrayed their country. Used to spread xenophobia.

Orlando

Premier of Italy and representing his country at Paris Peace Conference. Primary objective was to gain as much territory as possible for Italy. One of Big Four and also representing a democratic system.

Freikorps

Germany military (mostly volunteer troops) used by the government of the Weimar republic 2) put down Spartacist revolt in 1919

Friedrich Ebert

after William II left, he rules the Social Democracy and announces a democratic republic.

Wolfgang Kapp

Together with the Berlin army group commander Gen. Walther von Lüttwitz, he staged the so-called Kapp Putsch against the republican government of Friedrich Ebert and Gustav Bauer in March 1920.

Walter Rathenau

A talented foresighted Jewish industrialist who was in charge of Germany's largest electric company. He convinced the government to set up the war raw materials board to ration and distribute raw materials to ration and distribute the raw materials. All of this went towards powerful war machines.

Gustav Stresseman

German statesman who regained prosperity by showing others that his country would abide by the Versailles Treaty

Adolf Hitler

This dictator was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces.

Charles G. Dawes

American banker and diplomat who negotiated a loan repayment plan with France, Britain, and Germany

Aristide Briand

French foreign minister who deemphasized aggressive military intervention and championed the League of Nations

Lenin

Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)

Bolscheviks

Russian Revolutionary group

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