When did Christianity start?
25-50 AD (anything around there is correct)
this was a bad question just put ':)' as an answer
What time period comes after the Medieval times?
When was the Middle Ages?
500 AD-1500 AD
What time was feudalism?
900 AD - 1100 AD
When did the Franks arise?
After the fall of the Roman Empire
Who was the first Merovingian ruler?
What were some of the important things Clovis did?
He married a Burgundian princess, conquered Gaul, united Frankish tribes
What was the Merovingian kings' nickname
Rois Faineants (French for do nothing kings)
What is "balkanization?"
When countries were split up into smaller countries so all of the sons got pieces of land
What were the mayors of the palace?
The chiefs of the royal household
What was Charles Martel's nickname?
Charles the Hammer
What was prominent about Charles the Hammer?
He was a fearless military leader and defeated the Moors
What is Pepin III's nickname?
Pepin the Short
How tall was Pepin the III (you don't need to know this but just an interesting tidbit of info)
4 feet 6 inches
What did Pepin the Short do that was unlike any other MOPs that preceded him?
He overthrew the king of the time (Childeric III) to become king
What were the successors of Pepin III called?
What did Pepin III grant the Pope for backing him up?
the Papal States and protection
What did the Pope backing up Pepin III mean?
The pope started to have a say in who is king
Who was the 1st born Carolingian king?
What are some things Charlemagne did?
conquered Lombards, Saxons and Abards; stressed education; improved the government
What were Micci Dominici?
"Lord's Messengers" that Charlemagne sent out to hear complaints, investigate official misconduct, and determine the effectiveness of laws
Who did Charlemagne have to rule small part of his land for him? (they were stationary)
What are four characteristics of feudal contracts?
All noble; legal equals; based on trust and honor; same man can be a vassal to a lord and a lesser lord to another vassal
What is homage?
The solemn ceremony that sealed the feudal contract
What were the obligations of a vassal?
40 days of military service; loyalty; pay king's expenses (weddings, ransom, entertaining the lord and his entourage 1 or 2 times per year); administer justice
What were the three types of trial?
Trial by: battle, compurgation/oath taking, ordeal.
What happened during trial by battle?
Two knights would fight (usually jousting or fencing) and the winner would win the trial
What happened during trial by compurgation?
Each of the sides of the trial would get the highest nobles they know to write an oath saying that they are innocent/the other is guilty and the person with the highest noble usually won
What happened during trial by ordeal?
Each of the participants would have to go through a crazy ordeal like holding hot irons and the person who's burns healed fastest, won
What are some things on the domain?
manor house, farm, pasture land, orchards, village, church, blacksmith, carpenter, stream, grist mill
Who were freemen?
the blacksmith and carpenter (they could leave)
the political system of local government based on granting land in return for loyalty, military assistance, and other services
What is a fief?
The grant of land given to a vassal from a lord
What is a vassal?
the person granted land from a lord in return for services
What is primogeniture?
the system of inheritance from father to eldest son for ownership/possession of land
What was Peace of God?
The decree the church issued prohibiting violence near churches and holy buildings
What was Truce of God?
The decree the church issued prohibiting fighting on Sabbath and holy days
The economic system during the Middle Ages that revolved around self-sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared the land
How much of the land did the lord keep for himself?
1/3 of the best land
What was the land that the lord kept for himself called?
What was a serf?
a peasant who was bound to the land they worked on
Why were serfs bound to the land the worked on?
They never made enough money to pay off the "security deposit"
At what age could a boy become a page?
What did pages do?
learn manners and care of weapons, be an attendant
What age could a boy become a squire?
What did squires do?
knight's assistant, learn care of horse, use of weapons, care of armor, dress knight
How could a squire become a knight?
He would go into battle and he had to prove himself
How old did you have to be to become a knight?
What was heraldry?
When knights carried their family crests into battle
What was heraldry used for?
To distinguish knights in battle
What were the heads of monasteries called?
What were heads of convents called?
What type of lives did monks and nuns live?
structured lives: prayer, service, hard work, obedience
Why were monasteries and convents attacked by vikings?
They were wealthy, not defended, and therefore an easy target
Why were monasteries and convents so wealthy?
The monks and nuns brought their money and personal items and donated them to the convents and monasteries
What were some of the contributions of the monasteries and convents?
they preserved the intellectual life of Rome, they found new methods in farming, they were philanthropic, and traveled to send information
What was the spiritual role of the church?
administer sacraments and services, provide moral and spiritual guidance
How did the church influence government?
church leaders were often vassals; Civil laws couldn't contradict Canon Law; Power of excommunication and interdiction; Tithing
What was the economic role of the church?
monks became leaders in agriculture; reestablished trade routes; encouraged people to work hard; discouraged people gaining wealth from others
What was the social role of the church?
provided care of poor, widows, orphans, and sick; holidays provided a distraction from daily life
What was Canon Law?
the church's code of law
What was excommunication?
When the church banned one person
What was interdiction?
When the church excommunicated a whole area
What was tithing?
1/10 of a person's income that was donated to the church
What did a priest do?
Served a parish, administer 5 sacraments, led local services
What did a bishop do?
Managed a diocese and supervised priests; performed 2 sacraments
How was a bishop selected?
a king or a valuable lord selected them
What an arch bishop do?
managed several dioceses
What was the nickname for a cardinal?
Prince of the church
True or False: All members of the curia are cardinals, but not all cardinals are curia.
False: Cardinals are the select curia
True or False: There were very few arch bishops
What color did cardinals wear?
Who was the head of church?
Who is the current pope?
Pope Benedict XVI (16)
Why were the secular clergy called secular?
They helped the people
Who was Charlemagnes son?
Louis the Pious
What was the treaty of Verdun?
An agreement signed by Lothair, Chalres the Bald, and Louis the German agreeing to divide the empire amongs themselves
Who were the Vikings?
The most feared invaders of western Europe.
What is chivalry
It was a system of rules that dictated knights' behavior towards others.
What were 4 problems in the church?
Simony, Lay Investiture, Heresy, The Worldly Lives of Clergy
What does simony mean?
When a person buys a position in the church
What does lay investiture mean?
When a lord appoints a friend or relative to a high position in the church (usually bishop)
What does heresy mean?
When someone speaks out or acts against the church
What is an inquisition (lowercase i)?
the act of inquiring; investigating
What is an Inquisition? (capital I)
Institution of the Roman Catholic Church that sought to eliminate heresy by seeking out and punishing heretics
Name one famous Inquisition that was discussed
The Spanish Inquisition- 1400s. Search of Jews and Muslims.
What does "Worldly Lives of the Clergy" mean?
Many clergy (mostly bishops) began to live lives of luxury and ignored their religious responsibilities
What law was made to halt the worldly lives of clergy?
They weren't allowed to marry
Who were the vikings?
pirates from scandinavia that were prone to attacking church buildings, mostly monistaries (not for hatred of the Christian religion but because it was an easy mark)