In language, a discrepancy between what is said adn what is meant. In life, a discrepancy between what is expected and what occurs.
A mode of expression in which the speaker or writer says the opposite of what is really meant, such as saying "Great story!" in response to a boring, pointless anecdote.
A style of bitter irony intended to hurt or mock its target.
A situation in which the larger implications of character's words, actions, or situation are unrealized by that character but seen by the author and the reader or audience.
The contrast between a character's position or aspiration and the treatment he or she receives at the hands of a seemingly hostile fate; also called IRONY OF FATE.