medical terminology

249 terms by oeg4

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diacritical marks

marks indicating the pronunciation of a vowel

macron

indicates the long sound of a vowel

breve

indicates the short sound of a vowel

word root

the core of a medical term containing the fundamental meaning of the word

greek word roots

used to build words that describe a disease, condition, treatment, or diagnosis (a problem of cure)

latin word roots

used to build words that describe anatomic structures (anatomy)

combining form

a word root with an added vowel (usually o) had been added

suffix

a word element placed at the end of a word or word root that changes the meaning of the word

prefix

a word element attached to the beginning of a word or word root changing the meaning of the word

suffix

usually indicates a procedure, condition, disease, or part of speech

prefix

prepares us by indicating a number, time, position, direction, or negation

4 elements of a medical word

word root, combining form, suffix, and prefix

how to define a medical word

define the suffix, define the prefix, then define the middle part of the word

dermatomycosis

abnormal skin fungus

-osis

abnormal

dermat

skin

myc

fungus

types of suffixes

surgical; diagnostic; pathological and related; adjective, noun, or diminutive suffix

surgical suffix

describes a type of invasive procedure performed on a body part

diagnostic suffix

denotes a procedure or test performed to identify the cause and nature of an illness

pathological and related suffixes

describes an abnormal condition or disease

adjective, noun, or diminutive suffixes

these identify, describe, or provide smaller versions of a word

-centesis

surgical procedure (arthrocentesis)

-clasis

to break; surgical fracture (osteoclasis)

-desis

binding or fixation of a bone or joint (arthrodesis)

-ectomy

excision, removal (lumpectomy)

-lysis

separation, destruction, loosening

-plasty

surgical repair (plastic surgery)

-rrhaphy

suture (myorrhaphy)

-stomy

forming an opening (tracheostomy)

-tome

instrument to cut (osteotome)

-tomy

incision (tracheotomy)

-tripsy

crushing (lithotripsy)

-gram

record, writing (electrocardiogram)

-graph

instrument for recording

-graphy

process of recording (angiography)

-meter

instrument for measuring (thermometer)

-metry

act of measuring (geometry)

-scope

instrument for examining (endoscope)

-scopy

visual examination (endoscopy)

-algia

pain

-dynia

pain or ache

-cele

hernia or swelling

-ectasis

dilation, expansion

-edema

swelling

-emesis

vomiting

-emia

blood condition (anemia)

-gen or genesis

forming, producing, origin (think of genesis..the beginning)

-iasis or -osis

abnormal condition

-itis

inflammation

-lith

stone, calculus (lithotripsy)

-malacia

softening

-megaly

enlargement

-oma

tumor (lymphoma)

-osis

abnormal condition (cyanosis)

-pathy

disease (idiopathy)

-penia

decrease, deficiency (hydropena)

-phagia

eating, swallowing (dysphagia)

-phasia

speech (aphasia)

-phobia

fear

-plasia or plasm

formation, growth

-plegia

paralysis (paraplegia)

-ptosis

prolapse, downward displacement

-rrhage or -rrhagia

bursting of (hemorrhage)

-rrhea

discharge, flow (diarrhea)

-rrhexis

rupture

-sclerosis

abnormal condition or hardening (arteriosclerosis)

-spasm

involuntary contraction, twitching

-stenosis

narrowing, stricture

-toxic

poison

-trophy

nourishment, development

-ac (cardiac)

pertaining to (the heart)

-al (neural)

pertaining to (a nerve)

-ar (muscular)

pertaining to (muscle)

-ary (pulmonary)

pertaining to (the lungs)

-eal (esophageal)

pertaining to (the esophagus)

-ic (thoracic)

pertaining to (the chest)

-ical (pathological)

pertaining to (the study of disease)

-ile (penile)

pertaining to (the penis)

-ior ( posterior)

pertaining to (the back of the body)

-ous (cutaneous)

pertaining to (the skin)

-tic (acoustic)

pertaining to (hearing)

-esis (diuresis)

condition ( abnormal secretion of large amounts of urine)

-ia (pneumonia)

condition (infection of the lung)

-ism (hyperthyroidism)

condition (characterized by overactivity of the thyroid gland)

-iatry

medicine; treatment

-ician

specialist

-ist

specilaist

-y

condition; process

-icle (ventricle)

small, minute (smal cavity)

-ole (arteriole)

small, minute (the smallest of the arteries)

-ule (venule)

small, minute (small vein continuous with a capillary)

pre-

before or in front of

epi-

above, upon

hypo-

under, below, deficient

infra- or sub-

under, below

inter-

between

post-

after, behind

pre- or pro-

before, in front of

retro-

backward, behind

bi-

two (bifocals)

dipl- or diplo-

double

hemi-

one half (hemisphere)

hyper-

excessive, above normal (hyperactive)

macro-

large

micro-

small (microscope)

mono- or uni-

one (unicycle)

multi- or poly-

many, much (polygamist)

primi-

first

quadri-

four (quadriceps)

tri-

three (triangle)

ab-

away from (abduction0

ad-

toward (adduction)

circum- or peri-

around (perimeter)

dia- or trans-

through, across (transparent)

ecto- or exo- or extra-

outside, outward (ectoskeleton)

endo- or intra-

in, within (intracellular)

para-

near, beside, beyond

super-

upper, above (superior)

supra-

above, excessive, superior

ultra-

excess, beyond (ultrasensitive)

a- or an-

without, not

anti- or contra-

against

brady-

slow (bradycardia)

dys-

bad, painful, difficult (dyslexia)

eu-

good, normal (euphoria)

hetero-

different (heterosexual)

homo-

same (homosexual)

pan-

all (pandemic)

pseudo-

false (pseudo-pregnancy)

syn-

union, together, joined (synergy)

tachy-

rapid (tachycardia)

levels of organization

cell, tissue, organs, system, organism

cell

cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus

epithelial tissue

lining of organs, structures, canals- forms tubes

connective tissue

supports or connects other tissues and organs

muscle tissue

contractile tissue

nervous tissue

transmits electrical impulses

organ

composed of two or more tissues that perform specialized functions

system

composed of varying numbers of organs and accessory structures that have similar functions

organism

highest level of organization (complete living entity)

cyto/o

cell

hist/o

tissue

midsagittal plane

divides body into right and left halves

coronal or frontal plane

divides body into anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) aspects

transverse or horizontal plane

divides body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) aspects

dorsal cavity

contains central core of body, brain, and spinal cavities

ventral cavity

contains thoracic and abdominopelvis cavities

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