Blood, plasma, and serum components

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T/F - Blood is a major connective tissue

true

55% of blood is x, whereas 45% is x.

55% is plasma, 45% is cells

What % of blood is plasma? cells? Of cells, how many are RBCs? leukocytes and thrombocytes?

55% of blood is plasma 45% of blood is cells
99% erythrocytes (RBC)
1% leukocytes (WBC) and thrombocytes (platelets)

aka thrombocytes

platelets

Name the 5 major types of leukocytes

lymphocytes
monocytes
neutrophils
basophils
eosinophils

Functions of monocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils

monocytes = defense mechanisms
neutrophils = antigens, microbes, parasites
basophils = immune response
eosinophils = inflammatory response

Plasma composition is x% water

90-92% water

Plasma is 90-92% water, of the remaining dissolved substances (electrolytes, nutrients and waste products, lipoproteins, hormones transported by proteins) plasma proteins constitute x% of total solutes, out of which albumin = x%, coagulation factors = x%, and other = x%

Plasma composition:
90-92 % water
Dissolved substances
electrolytes
nutrients and waste products
lipoproteins
hormones (transported by proteins)
plasma proteins -98% of total solutes
Out of which:
Albumin - 60% Coagulation factors - 4% Other - 36%

Differentiate between plasma and serum

Cells are separated from the fluid component by centrifugation.
Plasma is gained when anti-coagulants are given to the blood .
Serum is gained after coagulation, thus serum is fibrinogen-free plasma.

What kinds of proteins are there in the blood? 2 major types

a. those at high concentrations, specific to blood and with a functional role in blood,
albumin
carrier proteins
immune proteins
proteins of blood coagulation
Serum protein content: 6.5-8.3 g/dl Serum albumin content: 3.5-5.5 g/dl
All plasma proteins, except for the immunoglobulins, are made in the liver.
b. those at low levels, with no functional role in blood.
proteins that are released from the cells because of normal cell turnover

All plasma proteins, except for the immunoglobulins, are made in the x

liver

All plasma proteins, except for the x, are made in the liver

immunoglobulins

Name the two residues that could make proteins more acidic, and the two residues that could make proteins more basic

b. how would you utilize this to differentiate proteins?

If Lys+Arg > Glu + Asp = basic
If Lys+Arg < Glu + Asp = acidic

Use gel electrophoresis to separate proteins based on their charges

*****Electrophoresis of serum or plasma

1. 4 major peak types
2. What's different about the albumin peak compared to the other peaks?
3. Variations in these peaks are indicative of x.
4. Which of the proteins is closest to anode? cathode?

1. albumin, α-globulin, β-globulins, γ-globulins
2. Albumin is a peak that composed of albumin only; the other peaks are mixtures of different proteins.
3. Variations in these peaks are indicative of certain diseases, thus can be used in diagnosis.
4. Albumin is closest to anode, y-globulins closest to cathode

Main plasma protein; reduces tissue water accumulation, transports many substances

albumin

Inactivates trypsin and other proteolytic enzymes, reduces damage from inflammation

alpha-1-antitrypsin

Alpha-2-globulin that binds to and inactivates enzymes, preventing tissue damage

alpha-2-macroglobulin

Alpha-2-globulin that is a hemoglobin binding protein that inhibits microbe iron uptake

haptoglobin

Beta-globulin that is major component of iron transport and delivery to cells

transferrin

Beta-globulin that helps regulate inflammatory response to foreign substances

complement component 3

Gamma-globulin that is the major immunoglobulin - long term immunity

IgG

Gamma globulin that is the initial response immunoglobulin

IgM

Gamma globulin that is a coagulation factor found only in plasma, not serum

fibrinogen

Which are alpha-1-globulin, alpha-2-globulin, beta-globulin, γ-globulin?
1. Albumin
2. Alpha-1-antitrypsin
3. Alpha-2-macroglobulin
4. transferrin
5. haptoglobin
6. IgG
7. Complement Component 3
8. IgM
9. Fibrinogen

1. none
2. alpha 1 globulin
3. alpha 2 globulin
4. beta globulin
5. alpha 2 globulin
6.. gamma globulin
7. beta globulin
8. gamma globulin
9. gamma globulin

The most abundant plasma protein - 60% of the total protein of the plasma.

albumin

Albumin comprises x% of total protein of the plasma

60%

Function of albumin

keeping the osmotic pressure of the blood normal transportation of biomolecules
(e.g. bilirubin, fatty acids, hormones, etc.)

Explain how edema forms when albumin is low

Clinical relevance: When albumin level is low, water moves from the arteries to the interstitial space and cannot return to the veins; resulting in edema. Thus, any disease that decreases the levels of albumin in the plasma may result in edema.

T/F - Any disease that decreases albumin levels in plasma may result in edema

true

protein malnutrition in children, when essential amino acids are not taken up in the required concentration, albumin will not be synthesized, thus fluids accumulate especially in the abdomen (ascites).

kwashiorkor disease

List 6 things that could result in hypoalbuminemia

1. liver disease (hepatitis C, alcoholism) - reduced albumin production
2. Kwashiorkor disease - protein malnutrition in children
3. renal disease (albuminurea) - albumin is not retained from urine
4. bowel disease (gastroenteropathy)
5. malnutrition
6. malabsorption

***Immediate response (acute phase response)
1. Stress or inflammation caused by infection, injury or surgical trauma causes selective increase in x in x mobility band.
2. 6 major proteins that increase during acute phase
3. 3 major proteins that decrease during acute phase

1. Immediate response (acute phase response)
Stress or inflammation caused by infection, injury or surgical trauma causes selective increase in haptoglobins in alpha2 mobility band.
2. Increase of: haptoglobin, alpha-2 macroglobulin, ceruloplasmin, C-reactive protein, complement factors, certain blood clotting factors
3. Decrease of: albumin, antithrombin, transcortin

Immediate response pattern

In A late (delayed) response pattern (chronic inflammation)
1. associated with x
2. x peak is increased due to increase in immunoglobulins
3. x band is also increased and
x peak is decreased (compensatory mechanism)

associated with infection
Gamma globulin peak is increased due to increase in immunoglobulins
Alpha2 band is also increased and
Albumin peak is decreased (compensatory mechanism)

Delayed response pattern

Hypogammaglobulinemia

Hypogammaglobulinemia could occur in x diseases

immunosuppressive diseases

Hepatic cirrhosis
1. elevates X with reduction in X.
2. X are elevated to keep osmotic pressure of the blood close to normal.

Hepatic cirrhosis
elevates gamma globulin with reduction in albumin.
gamma globulins are elevated to keep osmotic pressure of the blood close to normal.

What would happen to electrophoretic peaks during hepatic cirrhosis?

Hepatic cirrhosis
elevates gamma globulin with reduction in albumin.
gamma globulins are elevated to keep osmotic pressure of the blood close to normal.

Hepatic cirrhosis/polyclonal gammopathy

Monoclonal gammopathy
1. clonal synthesis of a unique immunoglobulin, sharply increases the x band.
2. In this disease, neoplastic cells circulate in blood, characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of the cells and secretion of homogeneous gamma globulin, called M-protein.

Monoclonal gammopathy
clonal synthesis of a unique immunoglobulin, sharply increases the gamma globulin band.
In multiple myeloma, neoplastic cells circulate in blood, characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of the cells and secretion of homogeneous gamma globulin, called M-protein.

In multiple myeloma, neoplastic cells circulate in blood, characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of the cells and secretion of homogeneous gamma globulin, called x.

Monoclonal gammopathy
clonal synthesis of a unique immunoglobulin, sharply increases the gamma globulin band.
In multiple myeloma, neoplastic cells circulate in blood, characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of the cells and secretion of homogeneous gamma globulin, called M-protein.

Paraprotein aka monoclonal gammopathy

Nephrotic syndrome
1. reduction in x proteins that leave the blood through the kidney.
2. High x band is present because of inflammation and stress.

Nephrotic syndrome
reduction in low molecular weight proteins that leave the blood through the kidney.
High alpha2 band is present because of inflammation and stress.

reduction in low molecular weight proteins that leave the blood through the kidney.
High alpha2 band is present because of inflammation and stress.

nephrotic syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome

Protein-losing enteropathy
1. x of albumin and gamma globulins;
2. x in the alpha2 band is due to a stressful stimulus

Protein-losing enteropathy
decrease of albumin and gamma globulins; slight increase in the alpha2 band is due to a stressful stimulus

decrease of albumin and gamma globulins; slight increase in the alpha2 band is due to a stressful stimulus

protein losing enteropathy

protein losing enteropathy

SUMMARY
• Blood is a x tissue with many functions
• Components of blood are cells and x
• Components of plasma are x and x
98% of solutes are x
• Serum is x-free plasma (after clotting)
• Serum/plasma electrophoresis separates serum proteins to albumin; α-globulins; β- globulins; γ- globulins
• Changes in electrophoretic pattern may help in diagnosing certain diseases

SUMMARY
• Blood is a connective tissue with many functions
• Components of blood are cells and plasma
• Components of plasma are water and solutes
98% of solutes are proteins
• Serumisfibrinogen-freeplasma(afterclotting)
• Serum/plasma electrophoresis separates serum proteins to albumin; α-globulins; β- globulins; γ- globulins
• Changes in electrophoretic pattern may help in diagnosing certain diseases

The x is the medium in which the blood cells and dissolved components are transported around the body

plasma

***
Proteins can be separated based on their net charges.
1. The net charge of the protein depends on its x and the x of the environment.
2. Proteins which ratio of x to x is greater than 1 are basic and those less than 1 are acidic proteins.
3. Electrophoresis of serum or plasma is usually done at pH x at which the proteins are x charged and move toward the x electrode at a rate dependent on the net charge.

***
Proteins can be separated based on their net charges.
1. The net charge of the protein depends on its amino acid composition and the pH of the environment.
2. Proteins which ratio of Lys+Arg to Glu+Asp is greater than 1 are basic and those less than 1 are acidic proteins.
3. Electrophoresis of serum or plasma is usually done at pH 8.6 at which the proteins are negatively charged and move toward the + electrode at a rate dependent on the net charge.

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