What are 3 types of topical treatments that can be given to patients w/ acne vulgaris?
2. Benzoyl Peroxide
3. Topical antibiotics
If you prescribe antibiotics for a person w/ acne vulgaris, what else should you give them in combination?
What are some negatives to using B. Peroxide?
Can be irritating
What is the first line systemic treatment for acne vulgaris?
Tetracyclines (doxycycline, minocycline)
Name two forms of hormonal therapy that can be used to treat acne vulgaris.
Sprinolactone (androgen antagonist)
What does rosacea look like, and how is it different from acne vulgaris?
Erythematous papules, pustules and telangiectasias on face (cheeks, nose, chin)- "Flushing and blushing"
Does not have comedones and no relationship to androgenic activity
What age group does rosacea usually affect? Males or females?
30-50 year olds
Females 3 x more likely than males
What are the 3 stages of rosacea?
1. Flushing and blushing
2. Papules and pustules
3. Edema, phymatous changes (swelling, "bulb")
Name 3 non-skin findings of rosacea.
3. Grittiness and dry eyes
What can be done to treat rosacea?
1. Topical antibiotics- first line; ex. MetroGel
2. Oral antibiotics- help w/ papules/pustules; ex. Tetracycline
3. Azelaic acid- kills bacteria and reduces inflammation
4. Pulsed dye laser- destroys telangiectasias
What is the cause of rosacea?
Unknown. May be some connection w/ Demodex mites or H. Pylori. May also be genetic or hormonal.
What is folliculitis and how is it spread?
Superficial inflammation of hair follicle; abrupt
Spread by scratching, shaving
Other than shaving (mechanical cause), what can cause folliculitis?
Bacteria (Staph A)
What does folliculitis look like?
Dome shaped pustules with small erythematous halos arising in follicle
Can be tender
What is Majocchi's granuloma?
Deep folliculitis due to dermatophyte (fungal) infection. Usually caused by an introduction of tinea into hair follicle in women who shave their legs.
Why should you do a nasal culture in a patient that has folliculitis?
Because patients w/ nasal carriage of Staph A are at an increased risk of infection w/ the bacteria
In what population do you see eosinophilic folliculitis?
What are 3 treatments for folliculitis?
2. Antibiotic (antistaphylococcal, mupirocin)
3. Antibacterial cleanser
Also avoid heat, friction, occlusion
A child w/ eczema herpeticum is at risk of superinfection w/ what?
Staph A--> can end up getting impetigo on top of all of that
What's the first line treatment for eczema herpeticum (w/ secondary impetigo)?
Mupirocin ointment 3 x day 10 days
What does generalized acute pustular psoriasis look like?
Fiery red erythema
Lakes of pus
Why is generalized acute pustular psoriasis worrisome?
Comes on all of a sudden- might have fever and respiratory distress
What population generally experiences generalized acute pustular psoriasis?
Have hx of plaque psoriasis
What are 3 drug-related causes of generalized acute pustular psoriasis?
1. Withdrawl of systemic steroids
3. NSAIDs, salicylates
What is the treatment for gen. acute pust. psor.?
Get back to normal, prevent infection
What is palmoplantar pustulosis and what age group does it affect?
Localized form of pustular psoriasis (hands and feet); numerous pustules
Affects 50-60 y/os, not common
What does tinea manuum look like?
Eczema- dry skin, fissures, can be itchy
What is one hand, two feet syndrome?
Also known as tinea manuum- usually tinea pedis precedes the tinea manuum b/c of scratching of feet
What is tinea cruris and who does it mostly affect?
Jock itch, males
Who is more likely to have tinea facei?
What is the infectious agent of syphilis?
What are the stages of syphilis?
Primary, Secondary, Latent, Tertiary
What are 3 characteristics of primary syphilis?
Painless chancre that resolves w/ regional lymphadenopathy
How soon after the chancre does secondary syphilis appear and how long does it last? and how does it appear? (5)
6 weeks, lasts 2-10 weeks
1. Flu-like sx
2. Asymptomatic Rash
3. Mucocutaneous lesions
5. Generalized adenopathy
What is a classic sign of secondary syphilis?
Copper colored macules on palms and soles
In tertiary syphilis, what forms on organs?
What is the most common diagnostic test for syphilis?
RDR- Rapid Plasma Reagin (serologic test)
What other tests can be done to Dx syphilis?
Direct Fluroescent Antibody test
Dark Field Microscopy
Treponemal serologic test
What is the treatment for syphilis?
Penicillin 2.4 Million units IM
Doxycycline 100mg bid x 2 weeks
What is Hutchinson's triad?
Interstitial keratitis (inflammation of the cornea)
Eighth nerve deafness
For congenital syphilis
What are some signs of congenital syphilis?
Still birth, failure to thrive, snuffles, deafness
Desquamation of palms and soles