Psych for AP Unit 9

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Psych for AP - Unit 9

developmental psychology

a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e pp. 13, 411)

zygote

the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 412)

embryo

the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 412)

fetus

the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 412)

teratogens

agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 413)

fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 413)

habituation

decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 414)

maturation

biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 416)

cognition

all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e pp. 298, 417)

schema

a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 418)

assimilation

interpreting our new experience in terms of our existing schemas. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 418)

accommodation (development)

adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 418)

sensorimotor stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 419)

object permanence

the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 419)

preoperational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 421)

conservation

the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 421)

egocentrism

in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 421)

theory of mind

people's ideas about their own and others' mental states—about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 422)

concrete operational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 423)

formal operational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 423)

autism

a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 424)

stranger anxiety

the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 426)

attachment

an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 426)

critical period

an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 427)

imprinting

the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 427)

temperament

a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 428)

basic trust

according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 429)

self-concept

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?" (Myers Psychology for AP 1e pp. 432, 492)

gender

in psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 435)

aggression

physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e pp. 436, 670)

X chromosome

the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two of these; males have one. One chromosome from each parent produces a female child. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 438)

Y chromosome

the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 438)

testosterone

the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional levels in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e pp. 350, 438)

role

a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e pp. 439, 647)

gender role

a set of expected behaviors for males or for females. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 439)

gender identity

our sense of being male or female. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 440)

gender typing

the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 440)

social learning theory

the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 440)

adolescence

the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 445)

puberty

the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 445)

primary sex characteristics

the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 446)

secondary sex characteristics

nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 446)

menarche

the first menstrual period. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 447)

identity

our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 451)

social identity

the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group memberships. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 451)

intimacy

in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 452)

emerging adulthood

for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 454)

menopause

the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 456)

cross-sectional study

a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 463)

longitudinal study

research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 463)

crystallized intelligence

our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 464)

fluid intelligence

our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 464)

social clock

the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 465)

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