Psych for AP - Unit 10

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Psych for AP - Unit 10

personality

an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 479)

free association

in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 480)

psychoanalysis

Freud's theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences—and the therapist's interpretations of them—released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e pp. 480, 606)

unconscious

according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 480)

id

a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. It operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 481)

ego

the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. It operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 481)

superego

the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 482)

psychosexual stages

the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 482)

Oedipus complex

according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 482)

identification

the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 482)

fixation

(1) the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set. (2) according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e pp. 303, 483)

defense mechanisms

in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 483)

repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e pp. 284, 483)

regression

psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 483)

reaction formation

psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 483)

projection

psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 483)

rationalization

psychoanalytic defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 483)

displacement

psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 483)

sublimation

psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people re-channel their unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 484)

denial

psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 484)

collective unconscious

Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 485)

projective test

a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 486)

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 486)

Rorschach inkblot test

the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 486)

terror-management theory

a theory of death-related anxiety; explores people's emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 489)

self-actualization

according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 491)

unconditional positive regard

a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptance. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e pp. 491, 610)

self-concept

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?" (Myers Psychology for AP 1e pp. 432, 492)

trait

a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 494)

personality inventory

a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 496)

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 496)

empirically derived test

a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 496)

social-cognitive perspective

views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits (including their thinking) and their social context. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 503)

reciprocal determinism

the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 503)

personal control

the extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 505)

external locus of control

the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 505)

internal locus of control

the perception that you control your own fate. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 505)

positive psychology

the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 508)

self

in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 511)

spotlight effect

overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us). (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 512)

self-esteem

one's feelings of high or low self-worth. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 512)

self-serving bias

a readiness to perceive oneself favorably. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 513)

individualism

giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 516)

collectivism

giving priority to goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 516)

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