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Some simple terms mixed in, but it helps to see exactly how a specific teacher defines something.

Infusion Therapy

The delivery of medication in solution and fluids by parenteral route.

Parenteral

Route of administration that involves piercing of the skin or mucous membrane

IV Therapy

The most common route for infusion therapy; delivers solutions directly into the veins.

Infusion

Infusion is used for:
fluid balance
acid-base balance
administering medications
replacing blood

Infusate

Solution that is infused into the body

Isotonic Solution

"Neutral" solution,does not affect the distribution of water within the body. (osmolarity of 250-375mOsm/L) Pt's are at risk for fluid overload.

Hypertonic Solution

"High" solution that moves water FROM body cells TO the bloodstream, commonly to correct electrolyte or acid-base imbalance. (osmolarity >375mOsm/L) Pt's at risk for phlebitis & infiltration.

Hypotonic Solution

"Low" solution that moves water TO body cells FROM the bloodstream. (osmolarity <250mOsm/L) Pt's at risk for phlebitis & infiltration.

Solution Mnemonics

Relate solution names to the effect on blood volume, and then the effect on tissue.
Hypertonic- "High" solution - will make the blood volume go UP, this water has to come FROM the body
Hypotonic - "Low" Solution - will make the blood volume go DOWN, this water has to go TO the body.

Phlebitis

Inflammation of a vein caused by chemical, mechanical or bacterial irritation.

Infiltration

Result of IV solution leaking into the tissues around a vein.
S/S: Swelling, blanching, numbness, coolness of tissue around IV site

Thrombosis

Blood clot in the vein.
S/S: Tenderness/swelling

Extravasation

Extreme infiltration, IV fluids administered to space outside the vein, such as in a misplaced IV or venous damage/leakage.
S/S: Swelling @ or proximal to IV site, discomfort/burning/blanching @ IV site

Blood

The Joint Commission requires two patient identifiers and two qualified healthcare professionals before administering blood.
The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) universal barcoding system is most commonly used to ensure accuracy.

IV Orders

Require: Specific type of Fluid, rate in mL/hr or total volume and number of hours (may be mg/hr for continuous infusion med), specific information on any drugs or vitamins to be added,

Vascular Access Device

Any type of plastic tube placed in a blood vessel to deliver fluids and medications.

Vesicant Medication

Medication that can cause severe tissue damage if it inifltrates surrounding tissue. Should be administered via PICC line.

VAD

Vascular access device, any tubing inserted in the blood vessels to administer medication or fluids.

Midline Catheter

VAD used for hydration fluids, and therapy that is to last from 6 days to 4 weeks such as antibiotics or heparin infusions for DVT

Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter

PICC line - extends from insertion site (preferably basilic vein) to the superior vena cava, used to administer vesicant medications

CR BSI

Catheter-related Blood Stream Infection

Hypodermoclysis

Slow infusion of isotonic solutions into subcutaneous tissue. Recommended sites: upper & outer thigh, upper abdomen, and below the clavicle (solutions are better absorbed by areas with adipose tissue)

Intraosseous Therapy

Infusion into the red marrow of the bones. Contraindicated if the bone is fractured or in cases of severe osteoporosis. May cause osteomyelitis.

Compartment Syndrome

Increased tissue pressure in a confined anatomic space (such as bone marrow cavity) causes decreased blood flow to the area.

Intraperitoneal Therapy

Administration of chemotherapy drugs directly into the peritoneal cavity to treat intra-abdominal malignancies such as ovarian or GI tumors that have moves into the peritoneum.

Intraspinal Infusion

Medication administered into either the epidural space between the dura mater and vertebra, or the subarachnoid space between the arachnoid and pia mater.

Ampule

Small glass container that can be sealed and it's contents sterilized

Antebrachial

Pertaining to the forearm

Anterior

Front

Antiseptic

Preventing infection

Artery

Vessel carrying blood away from the heart to the body tissues

Asepsis

Sterile, free from infection

Aspirate

Remove by suction

Basilic

Large superficial vein on inner side of biceps

Cephalic

Large superficial vein on the outside of the biceps

Deltoid

Triangular muscle covering the shoulder

Distal

Farthest from the center, medial line or trunk

Distend

Stretch out

Dorsal

Positioned to the back

Intravenous

Within or into a vein

Muscle

Tissue composed of contractile cells or fibers which affect movement

Palpate

To examine by touch

Posterior

Toward the rear or caudal end

Radial

Pulse felt at the wrist

Syringe

Instrument for injecting fluid into cavities or vessels

Tourniquet

Constrictive device used to distend veins to facilitate venipuncture or IV injections

Vein

Vessel that carries blood from the body tissues to the heart

Venipuncture

Puncture of a vein for any purpose

Venous

Pertaining to veins or the blood passing through them

Bacteremia

Infection that can be caused by improper technique, cross-contamination or prolonged IV use
S/S: Fever, increased pulse, body aches, redness @ IV site

Repeat

We were told for testing purposes to learn the osmolarity ranges in the handout, which differ from our textbook.
Hypertonic: >375mOsm/L
Isotonic: 250-375mOsm/L
Hypotonic: <250mOsm/L

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