Psych for AP - Unit 14

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Psych for AP - Unit 14

social psychology

the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e pp. 13, 643)

attribution theory

the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 644)

fundamental attribution error

the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 644)

attitude

feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 646)

central route persuasion

attitude change path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 646)

peripheral route persuasion

attitude change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 646)

foot-in-the-door phenomenon

the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 647)

role

a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e pp. 439, 647)

cognitive dissonance theory

the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting discomfort by changing our attitudes. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 648)

conformity

adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 651)

normative social influence

influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 653)

informational social influence

influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 653)

social facilitation

stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 657)

social loafing

the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 658)

deindividuation

the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 659)

group polarization

the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 659)

groupthink

the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 660)

culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e pp. 43, 661)

norm

an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. They prescribe "proper" behavior. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 662)

personal space

the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 662)

prejudice

an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. It generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 664)

stereotype

a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 664)

discrimination

(1) in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus. (2) unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e pp. 222, 664)

ingroup

"Us"—people with whom we share a common identity. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 668)

outgroup

"Them"—those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 668)

ingroup bias

the tendency to favor our own group. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 668)

scapegoat theory

the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 669)

other-race effect

the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 669)

just-world phenomenon

the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 670)

aggression

physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e pp. 436, 670)

frustration-aggression principle

the principle that frustration—the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal—creates anger, which can generate aggression. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 672)

mere exposure effect

the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 678)

passionate love

an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 683)

companionate love

the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 684)

equity

a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 684)

self-disclosure

revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 684)

altruism

unselfish regard for the welfare of others. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 685)

bystander effect

the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 686)

social exchange theory

the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 687)

reciprocity norm

an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 687)

social-responsibility norm

an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 687)

conflict

a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 688)

social trap

a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 688)

mirror-image perceptions

mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 689)

self-fulfilling prophecy

a belief that leads to its own fulfillment. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 689)

superordinate goals

shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 690)

GRIT

Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction—a strategy designed to decrease international tensions. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 692)

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