22.2: Pulmonary Ventilation

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Respiratory Cycle

One complete inspiration and expiration is called a:

Diaphragm

The prime mover of pulmonary ventilation is the:

Valsalva Maneuver

Taking a deep breath, holding it by closing the glottis, and then contracting the abdominal muscles to raise abdominal pressure and push the organ contents out.

Ventral Respiratory Group

The primary generator of the respiratory rhythm; utilizes INSPIRITORY (I) NEURONS and EXPIRATORY (E) NEURONS):

Dorsal Respiratory Group

What issues output to the Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG) that modifies the respiratory rhythm to adapt to varying conditions (conditions outside of normal resting respiratory rhythm)?

Pneumotaxic Center

What receives input from hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebral cortex; issues output to both the DRG and VRG; hastens or delays the transition from inspiration to expiration, adapting breathing to special circumstances such as sleep, exercise, vocalization, and emotional responses?

Boyle's Law

State the appropriate law: The pressure of a given quantity o f gas is inversely proportional to its volume (assuming a constant temperature)

Charles's Law

State the appropriate law: The volume of a given quantity of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature (assuming a constant temperature)

Dalton's Law

State the appropriate law: The total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of its individual gases.

Henry's Law

State the appropriate law: At the air-water interface, the amount of gas that dissolves in water is determined by its solubility in water and its partial pressure in the air (assuming a constant temperature).

Intrapulmonary pressure

The internal pressure of the lungs is called the:

Transpulmonary Pressure

Intrapulmonary pressure - intrapleural pressure =

Pneumothorax

The presence of air in the pleural cavity:

Atelectasis

The collapse of part or all of a lung:

Bronchodilation

An increase in the diameter of a bronchus or bronchiole is called:

Bronchoconstriction

A reduction in diameter of a bronchus or bronchiole is called:

Alveolar Ventilation Rate

Volume of ventilated air (by alveoli) X Respiratory rate =

Tidal Volume

Amount of air inhaled and exhaled in one cycle during quiet breathing:

Inspiratory Reserve Volume

Amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with maximum effort:

Expiratory Reserve Volume

Amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be exhaled with maximum effort:

Residual Volume:

Amount of air remaining in the lungs after maximum expiration; the amount that can never voluntarily be exhaled:

Vital Capacity

The amount of air that can be inhaled and then exhaled with maximum effort; the deepest possible breath

ERV+TV+IRV

Vital Capacity (VC) =

Inspiratory Capacity

Maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal tidal expiration:

TV+IRV

Inspiratory Capacity (IC) =

Functional Residual Capacity

Amount of air remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal expiration:

RV+ERV

Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) =

Total Lung Capacity

Maximum amount of air the lungs can contain:

RV+VC

Total Lung Capacity (TLC) =

Alveolar Ventilation Rate

The measurement that is most directly relevant to the body's ability to get oxygen to the tissues and dispose of carbon dioxide:

Eupnea

Normal relaxed breathing is referred to as:

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