# 22.2: Pulmonary Ventilation

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### Respiratory Cycle

One complete inspiration and expiration is called a:

### Diaphragm

The prime mover of pulmonary ventilation is the:

### Valsalva Maneuver

Taking a deep breath, holding it by closing the glottis, and then contracting the abdominal muscles to raise abdominal pressure and push the organ contents out.

### Ventral Respiratory Group

The primary generator of the respiratory rhythm; utilizes INSPIRITORY (I) NEURONS and EXPIRATORY (E) NEURONS):

### Dorsal Respiratory Group

What issues output to the Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG) that modifies the respiratory rhythm to adapt to varying conditions (conditions outside of normal resting respiratory rhythm)?

### Pneumotaxic Center

What receives input from hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebral cortex; issues output to both the DRG and VRG; hastens or delays the transition from inspiration to expiration, adapting breathing to special circumstances such as sleep, exercise, vocalization, and emotional responses?

### Boyle's Law

State the appropriate law: The pressure of a given quantity o f gas is inversely proportional to its volume (assuming a constant temperature)

### Charles's Law

State the appropriate law: The volume of a given quantity of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature (assuming a constant temperature)

### Dalton's Law

State the appropriate law: The total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of its individual gases.

### Henry's Law

State the appropriate law: At the air-water interface, the amount of gas that dissolves in water is determined by its solubility in water and its partial pressure in the air (assuming a constant temperature).

### Intrapulmonary pressure

The internal pressure of the lungs is called the:

### Transpulmonary Pressure

Intrapulmonary pressure - intrapleural pressure =

### Pneumothorax

The presence of air in the pleural cavity:

### Atelectasis

The collapse of part or all of a lung:

### Bronchodilation

An increase in the diameter of a bronchus or bronchiole is called:

### Bronchoconstriction

A reduction in diameter of a bronchus or bronchiole is called:

### Alveolar Ventilation Rate

Volume of ventilated air (by alveoli) X Respiratory rate =

### Tidal Volume

Amount of air inhaled and exhaled in one cycle during quiet breathing:

### Inspiratory Reserve Volume

Amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with maximum effort:

### Expiratory Reserve Volume

Amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be exhaled with maximum effort:

### Residual Volume:

Amount of air remaining in the lungs after maximum expiration; the amount that can never voluntarily be exhaled:

### Vital Capacity

The amount of air that can be inhaled and then exhaled with maximum effort; the deepest possible breath

### ERV+TV+IRV

Vital Capacity (VC) =

### Inspiratory Capacity

Maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal tidal expiration:

### TV+IRV

Inspiratory Capacity (IC) =

### Functional Residual Capacity

Amount of air remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal expiration:

### RV+ERV

Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) =

### Total Lung Capacity

Maximum amount of air the lungs can contain:

### RV+VC

Total Lung Capacity (TLC) =

### Alveolar Ventilation Rate

The measurement that is most directly relevant to the body's ability to get oxygen to the tissues and dispose of carbon dioxide:

### Eupnea

Normal relaxed breathing is referred to as:

Example:

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