All the living and nonliving things that interact with one another in a given place.
The group of living things found in an ecosystem that depend upon each other for their needs. They also depend upon nonliving things in the ecosystem. Made up of different populations of living things in an ecosystem.
All the members of the same type of organism that live in an ecosystem or community.
A large group of ecosystems that have similar characteristics and are different based on their climate. 6 Land and 3 Marine type of areas.
6 major land biomes on Earth
Tundra, Taiga, Temperate Forest, Tropical Rain Forest, Grassland, and Desert.
The type of weather that occurs in an area over a long period of time. Supports different populations of living things.
Tropical Rain Forest
Forests in regions that are very rainy and hot. More plants and animals live in this biome than any other because of the moisture and warmth.
Forests that experience four distinct seasons: summer, fall, winter, and spring.
Land covered by grasses with few trees. Two types: Prairies and savanannas.
Grasslands found in temperate regions, such as central United States.
Grasslands found in warmer regions, such as central Africa.
The driest biome. Receives less than 25 cm/ 10 inches of rain each year. Some may not see a drop of rain all year.
Areas with long, severe winters and short, cool summers, like Northern North America and Eurasia.
The Earth's coldest biome, average temp of -29 degrees F, located near the Arctic Circle.
Marine Biomes on Earth
Oceans cover about 70 percent of the Earth's surface. 3 zones in this group: Intertidal, Near-shore, and Open-ocean. All are saltwater.
Marine area that ocean tides cover and uncover in a regular cycle.
Marine area that is home to an underground forest of tall seaweed (kelp).
Marine area where the water is deep and cold. Algae, plant-like organisms, most single-celled, live here and produce most of the Earth's oxygen and food for ocean animals. Sunlight can only reach to about 660 feet in the ocean.
3 types of Freshwater Ecosystems
1) Streams and rivers (flowing water); and 2) ponds, lakes (still water), and 3) wetlands.
3 zones of deep ponds and lakes
sun-warmed surface, middle where water is cooler and only some sun, and deep cold at the bottom.
Description of how energy in an ecosystem flows from one organism to another. Almost all begin with the Sun. Plants capture the Sun's energy and animals eat the plants. This would not exist without plants. Energy is lost as heat at each step of a food chain.
Description of all the food chains in an ecosystem. Shows overlapping food chains (how food chains combine) in an ecosystem.
Energy flow in an ecosystem
From producers to consumers to decomposers.
Energy flow producer
Makes its own food from raw materials and energy. Example: Plants, algae, certain bacteria.
Energy flow consumers
Gets energy by eating food not producing it. Example: You and all other animals.
Energy flow decomposers
Break down the decaying remains of dead producers and consumers. Example: bacteria, protists, fungi, earthworms, other small animals.
First-level consumers (or primary consumers)
Animals that eat plants.
Consumers that eat other consumers.
plant eater - primary consumer.
meat eater - second- or third-level consumers.
Animals that hunt and kill prey.
Animals that eat both plants and animals. Examples: bears, humans.
Cycles in nature
1) plants take up carbon dioxide from the air and release oxygen. 2) Animals release carbon dioxide and take in oxygen. 3) water cycle - evaporation, rain-sleet-snow. 4) Nitrogen gas that makes up four fifths of Earth's atmosphere. Certain bacteria fix nitrogen gas into a form plants can use and animals get nitrogen by eating plants. Some plants in marshy soils get their nitrogen from eating animals (Venus flytrap).
Shows how much energy is passed along to each feeding level in an ecosystem. Producers at the base of the pyramid, Primary consumers, Second-level consumers, then Third-level consumers. Only 10 percent of the energy in one level is passed on to the next. Producers have the largest population and the most energy. Little energy remains for an animal to use at the third level (top) of the pyramid.
The frozen ground of the Tundra biome. Ground is frozen for hundreds of meters down and lower layers stay frozen all year long.