GRE Psych Subject Test: Language

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GRE psych subject test, Language, psychology

Vocab:
Language

Language:
-the meaningful arrangement of sounds

Vocab:
Psycholinguistics

Psycholinguistics:
-the study of the psychology of language

Vocab:
Phonemes

Phonemes:
-sounds that make up words but have no meaning
-infants first make these sounds when learning language
-i.e. "ee," "sh"

Vocab:
Morphemes

Morphemes:
-made up of phonemes; these are the smallest unit of meaning in language
-words or parts of words that have meaning
-i.e. "boy," "ing"

Vocab:
Phrase

Phrase:
-group of words that function as single syntactic part of sentence
-i.e. "walking the dog"

Vocab:
Syntax

Syntax:
-the arrangement of words into sentences, following rules of particular language

Vocab:
Grammar

Grammar:
-overall rules of language
-govern relationship btwn morphemes and syntax

Vocab:
Morphology or Morphological Rules

Morphology or Morphological Rules:
-Grammar rules, i.e. how to group morphemes

Vocab:
Prosody

Prosody:
-tone inflections, accents, and other aspects of pronunciation that carry meaning

True or False:
Infants can more easily differentiate btwn different expressions of the same sound than they can differentiate btwn completely different sounds.

FALSE.
Infants can more easily differentiate btwn. completely different sounds than different expressions of the same sound

Big Wig:
Noam Chomsky

Noam Chomsky:
-most important figure in psycholinguistics
-developed theory of innate LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE (LAD)
-developed theory of TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR which differentiates btwn surface structure (organization of words) and deep structure (underlying meaning) in lanaguage

Theory:
TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR

Transformational Grammar:
-developed by CHOMSKY
-differentiates Surface Structure (organization of words) from Deep Structure (underlying meaning of words)

Vocab:
Surface Structure

Surface Structure:
-the way words are organized in language
-part of CHOMSKY's Transformational Grammar theory
-different from Deep Structure of language

Vocab:
Deep Structure

Deep Structure:
-the underlying meaning of words in language
-part of CHOMSKY's Transformational Grammar theory
-different from Surface Structure

FTTP:
Can sentences with different Surface Structure share the same Deep Structure?

YES.
"I studied the material for hours."
"For hours, I studied the material."
"The material was studied by me for hours."
-These sentences share the same deep structure (underlying meaning) but have different surface structure (organization of words).

Theory:
LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE (LAD)
-4 main points:
-who developed?
-what is the idea?
-what is it based on?
-what does it mean about language acquisition?

Language Acquisition Device (LAD):
-theory developed by CHOMSKY
-idea of innate language acquisition: humans have an inborn ability to adopt generative grammar rules of language that they then use to generate novel sentences
-based on Chomsky's observation that children learning language make errors based on grammar rules rather than structural errors
-Chomsky believed children need only to be exposed to language in order to apply the LAD

True or False?
According to Chomsky's Language Acquisition Device, children learn language by imitating, memorizing, and learning through conditioning.

FALSE.
Chomsky's theory of the Language Acquisition Device postulates that humans have an inborn ability to adopt generative grammar rules of language that can then be used to generate novel sentences.
Children therefore need only to be exposed to language in order to apply the LAD; they do not imitate, memorize, or learn through conditioning.

FTTP:
What explains why children who are learning different languages progress similarly?

Chomsky's Language Acquisition Device

Vocab:
Overregularization

Overregulation:
-the overapplication of grammar rules
-i.e. a child may say: "I founded the toy." OR "I counted the sheeps"

Vocab:
Overextension

Overextension:
-generalizing with names for things, often done through characteristics rather than logic
-i.e. a child may call any furry thing a "doggie"

Vocab:
Telegraphic speech

Telegraphic speech:
-refers to speech without the articles or extras, similar to how it may appear in a telegram
-i.e. a child may say: "me go."

Vocab:
Holophrastic speech

Holophrastic speech:
-when a child uses one word (HOLOPHRASES) to convey a whole sentence
-i.e. "me" may mean "give that to me."

What should you know about GIRLS and Language Development?

Girls are FASTER and MORE ACCURATE with language learning than boys are.

What should you know about BILINGUAL CHILDREN and Language Development?

Bilingual children are SLOWER at language learning.

What should you know about READING and WRITING and language?

Reading and Writing are:
-processed in the SAME REGIONS of the BRAIN as
PRODUCING and UNDERSTANDING speech

People who are unable to read have what is called

ALEXIA

People who are unable to write have what is called

AGRAPHIA

What do children use first,
Nouns or Verbs?

Children use NOUNS first, then verbs.

List Language Milestones for the following developmental ages:
1 year
2 years
3 years
4 years

1 year: FIRST WORDS
2 years: >50 spoken words, in TWO and THREE-WORD PHRASES
3 years: 1,000 WORD VOCABULARY, with many grammatical errors
4 years: grammar problems are random EXCEPTIONS

Big Wig:
BENJAMIN WHORF

Benjamin Whorf:
-developed WHORFIAN HYPOTHESIS through observations of Hopi Language
-hypothesis posits that language, how a culture says things, influences a culture's perspective

Theory:
WHORFIAN HYPOTEHSIS

Whorfian Hypothesis:
-developed by Benjamin Whorf though his observations of HOPI language
-idea that language influences a culture's perspective
-i.e. this can be used as an argument for NONSEXIST LANGUAGE

FTTP:
What is often cited as an argument for nonsexist language?

The Whorfian Hypothesis, which posits that how a culture says things influences the culture's perspective, is used to argue in favor of nonsexist language.

Big Wig:
ROGER BROWN

Roger Brown:
-research found that children's understanding of grammatical rules develops through hypothesis and experimentation
-children form a hypothesis about how syntax works, then self-correct with experience

Big Wig:
Katherine Nelson

Katherine Nelson:
-found that language really begins to develop with the onset of ACTIVE SPEECH, rather than during first year of only listening

Big Wig:
WILLIAM LABOV

WILLIAM LABOV:
-studied "Black" english (known as Ebonics), found it had its own complex internal structure and wasn't simply incorrect English

Big Wig:
LEV VYGOTSKY

LEV VYGOTSKY
-Rusian psychologist
-with Alexander Luria, VYGOTSKY studied the development of word meanings and found them to be complex and altered by INTERPERSONAL EXPERIENCE
-asserted language is a tool involved in (not just a byproduct of) the development of abstract thinking

Big Wig:
ALEXANDER LURIA

ALEXANDER LURIA
-Rusian psychologist
-with LEV VYGOTSKY, LURIA studied the development of word meanings and found them to be complex and altered by INTERPERSONAL EXPERIENCE
-asserted language is a tool involved in (not just a byproduct of) the development of abstract thinking

Big Wig:
Charles Osgood

Charles Osgood:
-studied semantics, or word meanings
-created SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL CHARTS, which allowed people to plot the meanings of words on graphs (i.e. near "good" but far from "relaxed")
-found that people with similar backgrounds/interests plotted words similarly, indicating that words have similar CONNOTATIONS (implied meaning) for cultures/subcultures

FTTP:
Whose research supports the findings that "cheese" means "a type of food" for a subculture and "money" for another?
-name the research

CHARLES OSGOOD's work with SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL CHARTS showed that people w/ similar backgrounds plotted words similarly due to word connotation shared between subcultures

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