an integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.
the view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment.
a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
levels of analysis
the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind.
historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth.
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.
information collected through formal observation or measurement. Psychologists use data to answer questions about, and predict human behavior.
personal feelings and experiences about what the right answer should be.
the tendency to think that we could have predicted something that has already occurred that we probably would not have been able to predict.
the processes of collecting and organizing data and drawing conclusions about those data.
is the set of assumptions, rules, and procedures that scientists use to conduct empirical research.
personal statements or beliefs
objective statements verified by empirical evidence.
the method used by structuralists. Research subjects are asked to record their mental experiences as they complete mental tasks.
the study of how natural selection affects human and animal behavior.
popularized by Sigmund Freud, focuses on understanding human behavior by examining the role of unconscious thoughts, feelings, and memories.
championed by John B. Watson, proposes that it is not possible to objectively study the mind, and psychological studies should be limited to studies of behavior alone.
studies the mental processes of the mind, including perception, thinking, memory, and judgment.
is the use of various techniques to provide pictures of the structure and function of the living brain, allowing researchers to see the mind at work.
investigates the interactions between social settings and cultures and the ways in which people behave.
the ways of thinking, feeling, or behaving that are shared by group members and perceived by them as appropriate.
represents the common set of social norms, including religious and family values and other moral beliefs, shared by the people who live in a geographical region.