Statistics Terms and Formulae

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Use the "Show Symbols" check box to view symbols needed to answer some questions.

upper-case sigma

What is the name of the "Σ" symbol?

population

"N" stands for the number of scores in a _____ .

sample

"n" stands for the number of scores in a _____.

population mean

"μ" is the symbol for the _____.

population standard deviation

"σ" is the symbol for the _____.

mu

What is the name of the "μ" symbol?

lower-case sigma

What is the name of the "σ" symbol?

raw score

"X" is a symbol meaning _____.

sample mean

"M" is a symbol for the _____.

Sum of Squared deviations

"SS" stands for _____.

ΣX, N

Fill in the blanks for population.

N

population variance = SS/___

σ = √(SS/___)

sample standard deviation

"s" stands for for the _____.

ΣX, n

Fill in the blanks for sample.

Degrees of freedom

_____ refers to the number of scores in a sample that are free to vary with no restriction.

1

Complete the formula: df = n - ___

mean

Variance is the _____ squared deviation.

sample variance

"s²" stands for _____.

n-1

s² is the same as SS/___

N

σ² is the same as SS/___

n-1

Complete this formula for the sample standard deviation.

z

Complete the formula: X = μ + ___σ

µ

Complete the formula.

s

Complete the formula: X = M + z___

standard error

This formula yields the _____.

30

The distribution of sample means is almost perfectly normal if (1) the population from the which the samples are selected is a normal distribution and (2) the number of scores in each sample is relatively large, around ___ or more.

M

Complete the formula.

alpha level

The ____ for a hypothesis is the probability that the test will lead to a Type I error.

Type I

A ___ error occurs when a researcher fails to reject the alternative hypothesis.

Type II

A ___ error occurs when a researcher fails to reject the null hypothesis.

power, power

The ___ of a statistical test is the probability that the test will correctly reject a false null hypothesis. That is, ___ is the probability that the test will identify a treatment effect if one really exists.

β

The power of a hypothesis test is equal to 1 - ___.

t-score

What will this formula yield?

abscissa

The horizontal line on a frequency distribution table is called the _____.

ordinate

The vertical line on a frequency distribution table is called the _____.

computational

This is the _____ formula.

sample mean

This symbol stands for the _____.

the standard deviation

What will this formula yield?

sample mean

This formula will allow you to locate a _____.

sample standard deviation

This formula yields _____.

sample variance

This formula yields _____.

estimated standard error

This formula yields _____.

larger

The larger the variance, the _____ (smaller / larger) the error.

What is this?

Cohen's d

This is the formula for _____.

r²

This is the _____ formula.

increases

Increasing the sample size _____ (decreases / increases) the likelihood of rejecting the null hypothesis.

Example: