Neurons + neurotransmitters (nerves system)

Created by aly1812 

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Neuroscience

perspective on psychology that emphasizes the study of the brain and its effects on behavior

Neuron

the basic cell that makes up the nerves system, and that receives and sends messages within the system.

dendrites

branching extensions of neuron that receives messages from neighboring neurons

Soma

the cell body of the neuron responsible for maintaining the life of the cell.

glial cell

non-neural cells, holds neurons in place, provide nutriends, gather and package waste

myelin

a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next

Nerves

neural "cables" containing many axons. These bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

resting potential

the state of the neuron when not firing a neural impulse

action potential

the release of the neural impulse consisting of a reversal of the electrical charge within the axon

All-or-none

referring to the fact that a neuron either fires or does not fire at all

Axon Terminal

branches at the end of the axon

synaptic knob

rounded areas on the end of the axon terminal

neurotransmitter

chemicals found in the synaptic vesicles that when released has an effect on the next cell.

synapse

the junction between two neurons (axon-to-dendrite) or between a neuron and a muscle

receptor sites

holes in the surface of the dendrites or certain cells of the muscles and glands, which are shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters

excitatory Synapse

synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to fire

inhibitory synapse

synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to stop firing

agonists

chemical substances that mimic or enhance the effects of a neurotransmitter on the receptor sites of the next cell, increasing or decreasing the activity of that cell

antagonists

chemical substances that block or reduce a cell's response to the action of other chemicals or neurotransmitters

Reuptake

process by which neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicles.

Acetylcholine

a neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction

serotonin

a neurotransmitter involved in e.g. sleep and depression and memory

GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)

involved in sleep, mood, and appetite

Glutamate

major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in learning, memory formation, and nerves system formation

norepinephrine

mainly excitatory neurotransmitter involved in arousal and mood

dopamine

excitatory or inhibitor involved in control of movement and sensation of pleasure

endorphins

inhibitory neural regulator involved in pain relief

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