Biology Final Chapter 7 Quizzes

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A major chemical that regulates the fluidity of animal cell membranes by stiffening the membrane at higher temperatures and preventing the membrane from freezing at lower temperature is:
cholesterol.
lipid in nature.
a steroid.
All of the choices are correct.

d

Proteins in a membrane are:
peripheral if they are on the inside surface held in place by the cytoskeleton.
integral if they are embedded in the membrane and protrude from both surfaces of the bilayer.
integral if they protrude from only one surface of the bilayer.
All of the choices are correct.

d

Active transport
requires an input of ATP.
is involved in diffusion.
occurs in osmosis and facilitated transport.
All of the choices are correct.

a

The newly discovered membrane channel protein that accounts for why water can cross a membrane more quickly than expected is:
ATP synthetase
Aquaporin
The sodium-potassium pump
Integrin

b

In a phospholipid bilayer, the

phosphate groups are hydrophobic.
fatty acid tails are ionized.
fatty acid tails are hydrophilic.
proteins are located only between the two layers.
phosphate heads are oriented toward the exterior of the cell or toward the cytoplasm.

e

Which statement is true about the plasma membrane?

The proteins make up the matrix of the membrane.

The model can be likened to a sandwich where phospholipids are like the bread and proteins are like the filling.

The fluid nature of the membrane is regulated by flip-flopping of the phospholipids from one side of the membrane to the other.

The movement of proteins and phospholipids can occur sideways within the plane of the membrane.

d

Which statement is NOT true about the proteins in the plasma membrane?
Proteins may be attached to the inner surface of the plasma membrane.
The hydrophobic portion of a protein is embedded within the membrane.
Some peripheral proteins are connected to cytoskeletal filaments.
Integral proteins are responsible for membrane functions.
Glycoproteins contain carbohydrate chains that are oriented toward the inner surface of the membrane.

e

Which phrase does NOT describe one of the functions of proteins of the plasma membrane?
forming a channel through the membrane
initiating the replication of the genetic material
binding to a substance to carry it through the membrane
acting as a receptor for substances external to the cell
increasing the rate of a chemical reaction

b

Whether a molecule can cross the plasma membrane depends upon
the size of the molecule.
the shape of the molecule.
the chemical properties of the molecule.
the charge of the molecule.
All of the choices are correct.

e

If a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, which will occur?
Salts will move into the cell from the surrounding solution.
Water will move into the cell from the surrounding solution.
Salts will move out of the cell into the surrounding solution.
Water will move out of the cell into the surrounding solution.
None of the choices will occur.

b

Which is the best definition of osmosis?
The movement of molecules from an area of their higher concentration to an area of their lower concentration.
The movement of water across a semi permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration.
The movement of molecules from an area of their lower concentration to an area of their higher concentration.
The movement of water across a semi permeable membrane from an area of lower water concentration to an area of higher water concentration.
The movement of a substance against its concentration gradient through the release of energy from ATP.

b

Which type of molecule will require some amount of energy to cross the cell membrane?
glycerol
polar
non-polar molecules
carbon dioxide
oxygen

b

Freshwater protozoans react to a/an _____ environment by removing water through _____.
hypertonic, turgor pressure
hypotonic, turgor pressure
isotonic, a contractile vacuole
hypertonic, a contractile vacuole
hypotonic, a contractile vacuole

e

The major functions of the plasma membrane do NOT include
separation of the fluid environments inside and outside the cell.
regulation of molecules and ions that pass into and out of the cell.
recognition and communication between different cells and tissues.
maintaining connections between adjacent cells.
production of proteins used in construction of the cell wall.

e

Plants show turgor pressure when
cells are losing water from their water vacuoles.
cells contain water vacuoles that are full of water.
water is being used up in photosynthesis.
water is being evaporated from the leaves.

b

Which is the best definition of active transport?
movement of molecules from an area of their higher concentration to an area of their lower concentration
movement of water across a semi permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration
movement of molecules from an area of their lower concentration to an area of their higher concentration
movement of water across a semi permeable membrane from an area of lower water concentration to an area of higher water concentration
movement of a substance against its concentration through the release of energy from ATP

e

Sugars and amino acids are carried into the cell by means of
facilitated transport.
diffusion.
endocytosis.
exocytosis.

a

The process by which cholesterol is transported into the cell by the binding of LDL to its receptor and the internalization of the receptor-LDL complex is
facilitated transport.
active transport.
cotransport.
endocytosis.
exocytosis.

d

A 10% glucose solution is placed in the thistle tube. The thistle tube is placed in a beaker that contains a 5% glucose solution. The solution in the thistle tube is _______ to the solution in the beaker.

Hypertonic
Hypotonic
Isotonic
None of the above

a

A 10% glucose solution is placed in the thistle tube. The thistle tube is placed in a beaker that contains a 5% glucose solution. Where is the highest concentration of water found?

In the 10% solution
In the 5% solution
The concentration of water is the same in both solutions.
None of the above

b

A 10% glucose solution is placed in the thistle tube. The thistle tube is placed in a beaker that contains a 5% glucose solution. There is a differentially permeable membrane across the broad end of the tube, which is permeable to water but not to the sugar glucose. As diffusion occurs:

the 10% solution will become more concentrated and the 5% solution will become less concentrated.
both solutions will become more concentrated.
the 10% solution will become less concentrated and the 5% solution will become more concentrated.
both solutions will become less concentrated.

c

Study the series of pictures to identify the process as:

facilitated transport
active transport
passive transport
osmosis

a

In the cell pictured, there is no net movement of water. The amount leaving the cell and entering the cell is the same. In what type of environment is this cell found?

hypertonic
hypotonic
isotonic
none of the above

c

Eukaryotic cells are substantially larger than bacterial cells and average over 20 times more volume-per-surface-area than bacterial cells. How can the eukaryotic cell membrane provide this higher rate of exchange of materials?
Plasma membrane folds increase the surface area.
Carrier proteins speed the rate at which a solute crosses the plasma membrane in the direction of decreasing concentration.
Mitochondria are concentrated near membranes to provide energy for active transport of molecules or ions.
Large molecules are engulfed by vesicle formation.
All of the choices are correct.

e

If a living plant were moved from a freshwater aquarium to a saltwater aquarium, which of the following would occur?
Nothing. The plant would be fine in either aquarium.
The plant's cells would take on ions.
The plant's cells would take on water and will lyse.
The plant's cells would lose water and plasmolysis would occur.

d

Which of the following is the reason plants wilt if they are watered with a salt solution?
to protect the leaves from full exposure to the salt.
an increase in turgor pressure.
salt weakens the plant cell walls.
loss of water due to the salt solution resulting in a decrease in turgor pressure.

d

What type of transport mechanism is required to move sodium ions against their concentration gradient?
active
passive
diffusion
osmosis

a

Which process is responsible for moving cellular wastes across the cell membrane?
endocytosis
exocytosis
pinocytosis
receptor-mediated endocytosis

b

Which of the following is an example of active transport through a cell membrane?
Movement of carbon dioxide out of the blood stream and into the lungs
Movement of oxygen from the lungs into the bloodstream
Movement of sweat onto the surface of your skin
Absorption of glucose from the gut into the bloodstream

d

If a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, which will occur?
Salts will move into the cell from the surrounding solution.
Water will move into the cell from the surrounding solution.
Salts will move out of the cell into the surrounding solution.
Water will move out of the cell into the surrounding solution.
None of the choices will occur.

b

Which of the following is NOT associated with animal cells?
an extracellular matrix
plasmodesmata
gap junctions
adhesion junctions (desmosomes)
tight junctions

b

Red blood cells come in many "blood types" including type A, type B, type AB, type O [lacking proteins A and B], Rh positive, and Rh negative [lacking Rh+] and many others. If blood is transfused, the recipient detects any new or "foreign" proteins. These blood type proteins are
in the plasma where they have been secreted by the red blood cells.
inside the red blood cell cytoplasm.
on the outer surface of the red blood cell membrane.
evenly distributed throughout the cell contents and plasma.
in the red blood cell nucleus.

c

Which of the following situations is most likely to produce a heart attack?
The gap junctions have collapsed and they do not allow the correct flow of ions from one cell to the next.
The plasmodesmata have collapsed and they do not allow the correct flow of ions from one cell to the next.
The tight junction has ripped and is allowing ions to leak through the membrane lining the heart.
The cell walls have broken down and are not able to support the heart.

a

Which of the following protein functions is not correctly associated with its correct integral protein?
carrier proteins-facilitate passage of molecules through the membrane
enzymatic proteins-catalyze a specific reaction
channel proteins-block the activity of carrier proteins
cell recognition proteins-recognize pathogens

c

Which of the following is true with respect to plant cell walls?
They contain n-acetylglutamic acid.
They all have secondary cell walls to some extent.
There is a greater amount of cellulose in secondary cell walls than in primary cell walls.
Lignin is found in primary cell walls of plants.

c

Imagine a person has a genetic disorder that prevents them from producing the protein collagen, what types of cellular issues will they be faced with?
The cell will not have the ability to divide properly.
The cell will not have the ability to regulate the movement of molecules through the membrane.
The cell would not be recognized by the body's immune system.
The cell would not have the ability to resist stretching.
All of the choices are plausible.

d

Why is the energy expended during endocytosis worth it?
The cell increases the amount of ATP produced in order to complete endocytosis.
The contents drawn into the cell are isolated from the cytoplasm preventing them from altering the cells function.
The cell expends such a small amount of energy to run endocytosis it doesn't really matter.
There is no energy expenditure during endocytosis.

b

Having similar ____________ would allow tissues and organs to be transplanted easily.
cell recognition proteins
major histocompatibility complex proteins
carbohydrate chains in the cell membrane
all of the choices are involved in tissue transplantation

d

Which cell junction is unique to animals.
gap
tight
desmosomes
all are unique to animals

a

All life forms currently have a basic cell membrane so we presume that the earliest forms of life had this "fence" isolating the internal organization from the external chaos. It is likely that the primordial environment was acidic. In such a case, the cell membrane would have to include
a sodium (Na+) pump.
a proton (H+) pump.
mitochondria underneath in order to provide energy for active transport.
an acid-proof cell wall.
a totally nonpermeable membrane.

b

Which type of cellular process will most likely be used by an amoeba in order to obtain food?
phagocytosis
pinocytosis
exocytosis
receptor-mediated endocytosis

a

Which of the following is the reason plants wilt if they are watered with a salt solution?
to protect the leaves from full exposure to the salt.
an increase in turgor pressure.
salt weakens the plant cell walls.
loss of water due to the salt solution resulting in a decrease in turgor pressure.

d

Which type of cellular process will most likely be used by an amoeba in order to obtain food?
phagocytosis
pinocytosis
exocytosis
receptor-mediated endocytosis

a

Which of the following is the reason plants wilt if they are watered with a salt solution?
to protect the leaves from full exposure to the salt.
an increase in turgor pressure.
salt weakens the plant cell walls.
loss of water due to the salt solution resulting in a decrease in turgor pressure.

d

Which scenario is most likely to occur if the mitochondria in the kidney cells were to decrease in function?
The kidneys would improve in function.
The kidneys would begin excreting large amounts of waste products.
The amount of active transport in the kidneys would significantly decrease.
The amount of active transport in the kidneys would increase.

c

Which type of junctions will create a solid barrier to prevent molecules from moving between the cells?
gap
desmosomes
tight
plasmodesmata

c

Which cell junction will allow the movement of molecules between two plant cells?
plasmodesmata
gap
tight
adhesion

a

Some parasites and disease agents regularly change their identity before our immune system can build up substantial antibodies. How could cells change their chemical identity on a regular basis?
Rapid evolution produces mutations.
A new phospholipid bilayer is generated to replace the old layer.
Because the membrane is "set," the cell must reproduce and then the cell with the old membrane must die.
Cells eliminate all surface proteins and present only a naked lipid bilayer.
Different glycolipids and glycoproteins are produced internally and moved into the plasma membrane.

e

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