Honors Biology - Final Exam Review - Semester 1

126 terms by ldryer Plus

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Know the 5 steps of the scientific method

Asking a question
Forming a hypothesis
Setting up an experiment
Record and analyze results
Draw a conclusion

Know the 7 characteristics of living things

Living things are made up of cells
Living things reproduce
Living things are based on a universal genetic code
Living things grow and develop
Living things obtain and use energy
Living things respond to their environment
Living things maintain a stable internal environment

Know why you only test one variable in an experiment

If more than one variable is used, it will not be known which variable actually caused the change in the experiment.

Biology

The science that seeks to understand the living world.

Science

A body of facts that man has gathered by observing the physical universe.

Spontaneous generation

The name given to the idea that living things come from nonliving materials.

Manipulated variable

A variable that is deliberately changed in an experiment.

Responding variable

The variable that is observed and changes in response to the manipulated variable.

Know the Parts of the Microscope

Scanning Electron

Microscope that shoots beams of electrons across the surface of an object.

Transmission Electron

Microscope that shoots beams of electrons through an object to get an image.

Quantitative data

Data that is expressed as numbers obtained by counting or measuring

Qualitative data

More descriptive data that involves characteristics that can't usually be counted

3 parts of a nucleotide

Sugar, Phosphate, Nitrogenous base

Four Major Groups of Organic Compounds

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acids

Three subatomic particles, their charges, mass, and location

Protons - positive charge, mass of 1 amu, found in nucleus
Neutrons - neutral/no charge, mass of 1 amu, found in nucleus
Electrons - negative charge, mass of 1/1840, found surrounding the nucleus

Know how to find the atomic number and mass number, proton, electron, neutron numbers

The atomic number is the number of protons (and electrons) in an atom.
The mass number is the number of protons plus neutrons in an atom.

Adhesion

Attraction between molecules of different substances.

Cohesion

Attraction between molecules of the same substance.

Unsaturated

When there are double bonds between carbons in a fatty acid molecule and there are not as many hydrogens surrounding the carbons.

Saturated

When each of the carbon atoms in a fatty acid molecule has two hydrogen atoms attached to it.

Ionic bond

When atoms give or take (transfer) electrons

Covalent bond

When two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons

Solvent

Substance that does the dissolving in a solution

Solute

Substance that is dissolved in a solution

Element

A pure substance that consists of one type of atom

Atom

The basic unit of matter

Atomic number

The total number of protons in an atom; the number given to each element

Mass number

The total number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

Compound

Two or more elements put together chemically in specific proportions

3 parts of the Cell Theory

1. All living things are made of cells.
2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.
3. Cells come from the reproduction of pre-existing cells.

Mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell that creates cell energy

Cell membrane

Controls what enters and leaves the cell

Nucleus

Stores DNA, controls most cell processes, and contains all information all information needed to make proteins

Golgi body

Stacks of flattened sacs that function to package, sort, process, and send out compounds in the cell

Ribosomes

Makes proteins using coded instructions from the nucleus

Nucleolus

Functions to make ribosomes

Cytoplasm

Watery material that is enclosed by the cell membrane and contains all the organelles

Centrioles

Barrel shaped bodies that function during cell division

Endoplasmic reticulum

Contains enzymes to produce lipid membranes and functions during drug detoxification

Lysosome

Contains digestive enzymes that break down food, bacteria, and worn out cell parts

Cell wall

Rigid outside covering that supports and protects the cell

Vacuoles

Fluid-filled sacs for storage of food, water, and wastes

Chromatin

Materials of heredity made of DNA and protein

Nuclear membrane

Controls what goes into and out of the nucleus

Chromosome

What is created when chromatin condenses.

Cytoskeleton

Helps to keep the cells internal shape

Diffusion

Movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached

Osmosis

Movement of a solvent through a semi-permeable membrane

Facilitated diffusion

Requires no energy from the cell to perform but does require a carrier protein

Active transport

Requires cell energy to move substances across the cell membrane

Tissues

Groups of cells that function together to perform a specific function

Organs

Groups of tissues that have a specific function.

Organ systems

Several organs working together to perform a specific function.

Prokaryote

Organism that lacks a true nucleus or membrane-bound organelles

Eukaryote

Organism that has a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles

What is ATP? What does ATP stand for? Where is energy stored in an ATP? When is energy released from ATP?

A small, usable unit of energy
Adenosine Triphosphate
Most energy is stored between the 2/3rd phosphates
Energy is release when a phosphate breaks off

Photosynthesis Equation (know in words only)

Carbon dioxide plus water yields sugar (glucose) plus oxygen

Know how heterotrophs get their energy from the sun even though they can't make their own

Heterotrophs rely on other organisms for food. They eat both heterotrophs and autotrophs. Autotrophs store the suns energy so when heterotrophs eat them, they are getting their energy from the sun.

Grana

Stacks of thylakoids

Heterotroph

An organism that cannot make its own food but relies on other organisms for their energy

Autotroph

An organism that is capable of capturing light energy and making their own food

Equation for Cell Respiration (in words only)

Oxygen plus sugar (glucose) yields carbon dioxide plus water

Know another name for Krebs cycle...why?

Citric acid cycle
Citric acid is the first compound made in the cycle

Know and describe the four main events of the cell cycle

Gap 1 (G1) phase - Cell grows and makes more organelles
Synthesis (S) phase - DNA is replicated
Gap 2 (G2) phase - Cell prepares for mitosis
M phase - Includes Mitosis and Cytokinesis which are the processes of cell division

Four phases of mitosis

Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase

Mother cell

A cell that is ready to begin mitosis

Internal regulators

Proteins that regulate the cell cycle based on events inside the cell

External regulators

Proteins that regulate the cell cycle based on the events that occur outside the cell

Genetics

The study of heredity

Alleles

Different forms of a gene

Homozygous

When two genes for an allele are identical

Heterozygous

When an organism has two different alleles for the same trait

Homologous chromosomes

Pairs of chromosomes that occur when the male gives one set and the female gives another set

Genotype

The genes an organism has that are expressed as capital and lowercase letters

Phenotype

The physical characteristics an organism has

Recessive alleles

A trait that is masked or hidden unless both are inherited

Dominant alleles

A trait that shows up even if the opposing trait is there

Incomplete dominance

Occurs when a cross between two organisms results in the dominant trait showing up partially

Co-dominance

Occurs when a cross between two organisms results in both traits showing up equally

Spermatogenesis

The formation of the sperm cells.

Oogenesis

The formation of the egg cells.

-cellular

celled

multi-

many

a-

without

bio-

life

uni-

one

-logy

study of

endo-

within

semi-

half

equi-

equal

-librium

balance

exo-

outside of

-permeable

to pass through

sucr-

sugar

di-

two

-ose

sugar

fruct-

fruit

galact-

milk

mono-

one

-saccharide

sugar

lact-

milk

-phobic

fear of

poly-

many

hydra-

water

-philic

love of

gluc-

sweet

malt-

malt

-synthesis

to put together

chloro-

green

homo-

same

phago-

to eat

aero-

air

auto-

self

-troph

nourishment

hetero-

other

an-

without

pino-

to drink

photo-

light

-phyll

leaf

-genesis

beginning

spermato-

seed

oo-

egg

hyper-

above

macro-

Giant

-zygous

yolked or joined

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