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nocieceptors

pain receptors - free sensory neve endings that are presnt in most tissues (hot cold mechanical

dermatome

aera of skin innervated by a spinal nerve

endorphins

chemically similar to opiates

referred pain

pain that is felt at a different location than origin

pain tolerance

degree of pain either its intensity or duration that is endured before an individual takes action (increase release of endorphins increase pain tolerance)

migraines

related to abnormal cerebral blood flow

severe pain

meperidine, morphine (reduce stress and distractors)

dermatome

area of skin innervated by a spinal nerve

spinal or regional anesthesia

epidural injection in lower spinal cord

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