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Using Glencoe Physical Science w/Earth Science

balanced chemical reaction

this is the symbolic representations of a chemical reaction where the number of atoms of each element is on the left of the arrow is equal to the number of atoms of each element on the right side

chemical equation

A representation of a chemical reaction that uses symbols to show the relationship between the reactants and the products

chemical reaction

a change in which one or more reactants change into one or more products; characterized by the breaking of bonds in reactants and the formation of bonds in products

coefficient

A number in front of a chemical formula in an equation that indicates how many molecules or atoms of each reactant and product are involved in a reaction.

molar mass

The mass in grams of one mole of a substance

mole

an SI unit for the amount of a substance that contains 6.02 x 10^23 representative particles of that substance

products

the elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction

reactants

the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction

combustion reaction

a chemical reaction that occurs when a substance reacts with oxygen, releasing energy in the form of heat and light

decomposition reaction

a chemical change in which a single compound breaks down into two or more simpler products

double-displacement reaction

the positive ion of one compound replaces the positive ion of the other to form two new compounds

oxidation

a chemical reaction that involves the loss of an electron. Oxidation often involves the addition of oxygen and the loss of hydrogen ions.

precipitate

a solid that forms from a solution during a chemical reaction

reduction

any process in which electrons are added to an atom or ion (as by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen)

single-displacement reaction

Chemical reaction in which one element replaces another element in a compound.

synthesis reaction

a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a single new compound

endergonic reaction

chemical reaction that requires energy input (heat, light, or electricity) in order to proceed

endothermic reaction

a reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat

exergonic reaction

An energy-releasing chemical reaction in which the reactants contain more potential energy than the products. The reaction releases an amount of energy equal to the difference in potential energy between the reactants and the products.

exothermic reaction

chemical reaction in which energy is primarily given off in the form of heat

catalyst

(chemistry) a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected

collision model

a theory based off kinetic molecular theory which states that molecules must collide to react

equilibrium

condition in which reactants and products of a chemical reaction are formed at the same rate

inhibitor

a substance that slows down or stops a chemical reaction

Le Chatelier's Principle

States that if a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that relieves the stress.

reaction rate

The rate at which reactants change into products over time.

reversible reaction

a reaction in which the conversion of reactants into products and the conversion of products into reactants occur simultaneously

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