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A&P Ear Anatomy.

Structure composing the external ear

Pinna (auricle), external auditory canal, tympanic membrane

structure composing the internal ear

semicircular canals, cochlea, vestibule

collectively calles the ossicles

incus (anvil), malleus (hammer), stapes (stirrup)

involved in equalizing the pressure in the middle ear with atmospheric pressure

pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube

vibrates at the same frequency as sound waves hitting it; transmits the vibrations to the ossicles

tympanic membrane

contains receptors for the sense of balance

semicircular canals, vestibule

transmits the vibratory motion of the stirrup to the fluid in the scala vestibuli of the inner ear

oval window

acts as a pressure relief valve for the increased fluid pressure in the scala tympani; bulges into the tympanic cavity

round window

passage between the throat and the tympanic cavity

pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube

fluid contained within the membranous labyrinth

incus (anvil)

fluid contained within the osseous labyrinth and bathing the membranous labyrinth

perilymph

sacs found within the vestibule

saccule, utricle

contains the spiral organ of corti

cochlear duct

sites of the maculae

saccula, utricle

positioned all spatial planes

semicircular ducts

hair cells of spiral organ of corti rest on this membrane

basilar membrane

gelainous membrane overlying the hair cells of the spiral organ of corti

tectorial membrane

contains the crista ampullaris

ampulla

function in static equilibrium

otoliths, saccule, utricle, vestibular nerve

function in dynamic equilibrium

ampulla, cupula, semicircular ducts, vestibular nerve

carries auditory information to the brain

cochlear nerve

gelatinous cap overlying hair cells of the crista ampullaris

cupula

grains of calcium carbonae in the maculae

otoliths

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