A & P 1552: Endocrine System/Chapter 18 - College of Dupage

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104 terms · A & P II, Skarbek-college of dupage; chapter 18 kimkwas

Nervous system:

operates by electrical nerve impulses-action potentials

Action potentials:

conducted along axons, through neurotransmitters

Electrical nerve impulses:

quick acting impulses with short duration

Endocrine system:

operated by use of chemicals transported through blood

Hormones:

Chemicals transported through the blood

Chemical transporter:

usually takes hours or days to achieve response

Hormones:

substance that is typically produced in one part of the body, but acts in another part

Exocrine glands:

Uses ducts to secrete their substances

Endocrine glands:

secretes the substance through interstitial fluid, which diffuses into capillaries

Paracrines:

hormones that act on neighboring cells

Autocrines:

hormones that work on the same cell that created/secreated them

Target cells:

cells that are awaiting specific hormones

Circulating hormones:

Circulates through blood and are eliminated by liver & kidney

Lipid soluble hormones:

steroids, thyroid & nitric oxide

Nitric oxide:

____ ___ is a Signaling hormone & neurotransmitter secreted from synaptic end bulbs

Water soluble hormones:

catecholamines, histamine, serotonin, melatonin

Catecholamines:

chemically related neurotransmitters; epinephrine, norepenephrine, dopamine

Glycoprotein hormones:

proteins with carbohydrates attached

Water soluble hormones:

____ ____ hormones circulate through blood freely w/no special transport

Lipid soluble hormones:

require transport proteins to move to correct location

Insulin:

a water soluble hormone that has to be injected

Hypothalamus:

pituitary gland attaches to it by the stalk -infundibulum

Anterior pituitary gland:

aka adenohypophysis

Pituitary :

The ____ gland is under the control of the hypothalamus.

Hypothalamus:

Produces two types of hormones, which control anterior pituitary gland

Two hormones produced by hypothalamus:

releasing and inhibiting hormones

hGH:

human growth hormone

Human growth hormone:

promotes tissue growth by promoting synthesis of IGF's

IGF's:

Insulin like growth factors

TSH:

thyroid stimulating hormone

TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone):

stimulates production of T3 & T4 hormones of the thyroid gland

FSH:

follicle stimulating hormone

FSH :

____ hormone causes the secretion of estrogen; initiates development of ovarian follicles

Follicle-stimulating hormone:

stimulates sperm production

LH:

luteinizing hormone

Luteinizing hormone:

triggers ovulation; stimulates secretion of progesterone & estrogen

PRL:

prolactin

Prolactin:

initiates/maintains milk secretion in lactating women

ACTH:

adrenocorticotropic hormone

ACTH (adrenocorticotropic):

controls production & secretion of adrenal glands

MSH:

melanocyte stimulating hormone

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone:

not known in humans; in amphibians it increases skin pigmentation

Posterior pituitary gland:

neurohypophysis

Posterior pituitary gland:

only stores hormones that are made by hypothalamus

Oxytocin:

causes uterus contractions & milk ejection

Antidiuretic hormone:

causes kidneys to reabsorb more water; decreases urine production

Thyroid gland:

just inferior to larynx; composed of right & left lateral lobes

T3:

triiodothyronine

T4:

thyroxine

T3 & T4:

lipid soluble hormones; diffuse through plasma membrane into interstitial fluid

T3 & T4:

produced by follicular cells and iodine

Thyroid hormones:

Increases BMR, which stimulates use of oxygen to make ATP

Thyroid gland:

stimulates protein synthesis; increases lipolysis

Lipolysis:

breakdown of lipids

Accelerates body growth:

one function of thyroid hormones

Calcitonin:

Parafollicular cells produce and secrete this; releases when blood calcium is too high

Parathyroid glands:

On the posterior surface of the thyroid gland

Parathyroid gland:

Decreases loss of calcium & magnesium in urine

Parathyroid gland:

promotes formation of calcitrol-active form of vitamin D in body

Adrenal cortex:

more superficial area which makes up bulk of adrenal gland

Aldosterone:

major hormone of mineral corticoids

Aldosterone:

promotes excretion of hydrogen ions in urine, removing acids from body

Androgens:

weak sex hormones; contribute to secondary sex characteristics

Adrenal medulla:

smaller central portion of the adrenal gland

Chromaffin cells:

produces hormones of the adrenal medulla

Four cells of pancreatic islets:

alpha, beta, delta & F cells

Alpha cells:

produces glucagon

Alpha cells:

increases blood glucose by acting on the liver

Beta cells:

Produces insulin

Beta :

_____ cells decrease blood glucose.

Delta cells:

Found in the Islets of Langerhans, these cells produces somatostatin

Delta cells:

inhibits release of insulin and glucagon; slows absorption of substances from GI tract

F cells:

Produces pancreatic polypeptides

F cells:

a polypeptide hormone, produced in the brain and pancreas, that inhibits secretion of somatotropin from the hypothalamus and inhibits insulin production by the pancreas.

Thyroid hormones:

Synthesize T3 & T4 by attaching iodine to the amino acid tyrosine

Peptide hormones:

_____ hormones are smaller chains of amino acids.

Protein hormones:

longer chains of amino acids

Glycoprotein hormones:

proteins w/a carbohydrate attached

Parathyroid Hormones:

Increases blood calcium levels

Glucagon

Increases blood glucose level

Calcitonin:

A polypeptide hormone that participates in the regulation of calcium levels

Prolactin:

initiates and maintains milk secretion

Luteinizing :

____ hormone stimulates sex hormone production and triggers ovulation.

Cortisol:

Regulates metabolism and resistance to stress

Aldosterone:

Helps control water & electrolyte homeostasis

Insulin:

_____ is a medicine used to decrease blood glucose levels

Melatonin:

Regulates body's biological clock

Inhibin:

Suppresses release of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)

Androgens:

____ stimulate the growth of axillary and pubic hair.

Thymosin:

Promotes T- cell maturation

T3 & T4:

Regulates oxygen use, BMR, cellular metabolism, growth & development

Follicle Stimulation Hormone:

Stimulates egg and sperm formation

Estrogen/progesterone:

regulates menstruation & lactation

Relaxin:

Produced during pregnancy; increases flexibility of pubic symphysis; helps cervix dilate

Testosterone:

Regulates production of sperm; responsible for male secondary sex characteristics

Pineal gland:

Produces melatonin

Melatonin:

Regulates circadian rhythms of several biological functions; pervasive and powerful antioxidant

Thymus:

Produces thymosin, thymic humoral factor, thymic factor, thymopoietin

Thymosin:

An actin-binding protein in cells; promotes the development of immune-system cells.

Eicosanoids:

Signaling molecules made by oxidation that exert complex control over many bodily systems, mainly in inflammation or immunity, and as messengers in the central nervous system.

Prostaglandins:

One of two major Eicosanoids-smooth muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, immune response

Leukotreines:

One of two major Eicosanoids-Stimulate/enhances inflammatory response; promotes fever, intensifies pain

General adaptation syndrome:

Stress response controlled by hypothalamus

Three phases of stress response:

fight or flight, resistance reaction & exhaustion

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