two functions of cerebral spinal fluid
1) cushions organs of CNS | 2) provides nutrients
outermost layer of the meninges surrounding brain and spinal cord
weblike, middle layer of the meninges
the end of a long bone, attached to the shaft
AKA "OSTEOSARCOMA" - most common malignant bone tumor, with common sites being the distal femur, proximal tibia & the proximal humerus
soft semifluid substance located in small spaces of cancellous bone that is the source of blood cell production
yellow bone marrow
composed of fatty tissue | inactive in formation of blood cells
injury to the ligament surrounding a joint
overstretching, overextension or misuse of muscle or attachment of a tendon
the point of attachment of a muscle to the part that it moves
point of attachment of a muscle that remains relatively fixed during muscular contraction.
involuntary, viseral- not striated
structural joint types
functional joint types
hinge and ball and socket
mature bone cell
cell that functions in the breakdown and reabsorption of bone tissue
clicking or crackling sounds heard upon joint movement.
Hip socket. Formed by all three bones of the pelvis. Where the femur articulates; the cup-shaped hollow in the hipbone into which the head of the femur fits to form a ball-and-socket joint
a fluid filled cyst arising from the joint capsule or a tendon in the wrist
large boney process located below the neck of femur for attachment of muscles
very top, broad edge of the ilium, Superior margin of iliac bone
one of the three sections of the hipbone, lower, rear portion of the pelvis on which one sits
an acute inflammatory disease characterized by a rash with joint swelling and fever
dense, hard layers of bone tissue that lie underneath the periosteum
a dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones (except at their extremities) and serving as an attachment for tendons and muscles
procedure using an arthroscope to examine, diagnose, and repair a joint from within
inflammation of a joint or joints
abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe
an abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe (bunion)
a round bump on a bone where it forms a joint with another bone
a cord or band of inelastic tissue connecting a muscle with its bony attachment
a sheet or band of tough fibrous tissue connecting bones or cartilages or supporting muscles or organs
a fibrous sac between certain tendons and bones, lined with a synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid
joint-lubricating fluid secreted by the synovial membrane
narrow opening; a fissure
ossa coxae (ilium + ischium + pubis)
inflammation of spinal cord or bone marrow
an inflammation of bone and bone marrow (usually caused by bacterial infection)
inflammation of bony tissue
also called smooth muscles; form the walls of the internal organs of the body; involuntary
surgical realignment of broken bone ends
Realignment of broken bone ends WITHOUT surgery
a break at the lower end of the radius, occurs just above the wrist.
inflammation of the bones and joints
(clubfoot) congenital deformity of the foot in which it is plantar flexed and inverted
Inflammatory autoimmune disease, affecting joint cartilage and synovial membranes
fracture in which the broken ends of the bone protrude through the skin
open complete fracture
open wound with fracture thru the complete thickness of bone
acute attacks of arthritis usually in a single joint (especially the great toe) caused by hyperuricemia (an excessive level of uric acid in the blood)
a form of arthritis thats effects the spine and adjaciant structures
the muscle in the back part of the leg that forms the greater part of the calf
removal of tissue sample for analysis
3 of them- medialis, laleralis, intermedius, 3 of the four quadriceps muscles, orginates from femur and inserts on patella
middle , front part of the leg, all the way down, one of the four quadriceps muscles
a broad flat muscle in the calf of the leg under the gastrocnemius muscle, Planter flexes, inverts, and adducts foot
plantar flexes and everts foot; helps keep foot flat on ground, muscle that covers the outer side of the calf and inverts the foot and turns it outward
dual photon absorptiometry
a noninvasive procedure which involves beaming a minimal amount of radiation through the bone
Surgical puncture of a joint for removal of fluid
bone marrow aspiration
process of removing a small sample of bone marrow from a selected site with a needle for the purpose of examining the specimen under a microscope
procedure in which a radioactive substance is injected intravenously and its uptake in bones is measured with a special scanning device
a break that extends through the entire thickness of the bone
The end of a long bone, attached to the shaft
aka soft spots- is a space between bones of an infant's cranium that is covered by a tough membrane
a fracture in which only one side of the shaft is broken, and the other is bent
the process of blood cell formation
occurs when a direct force caused the bone to break
an abnormal inward (forward) curvature of the vertebral column, aka swayback.
compound fracture; broken bone with an open wound
AKA "OSTEOSARCOMA" - The most common malignant bone tumor, with common sites being the distal femur, proximal tibia & the proximal humerus
abnormal softening of bones caused by deficiencies of phosphorus or calcium or vitamin D; called Ricketts in children.
predominantly in females; fragile bones, loss of bone density, decreased levels of estrogen and calcium.
where blood cell production occurs throughtout one's life.
yellow bone marrow
gradually replaces red bone marrow in adult bones, functions as storage for fat tissue and is inactive in formation of blood cells
dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, this procedure measures bone densitrty more accurately than dual photon absorptiometry, takes less time, and emits less radiation to the patient.
oily secretion of the sebaceous glands, necessary for lubricating hair and keeping skin soft and waterproof.
White crescent shaped area nearest the root of nail
soft downy hair which almost covers the developing fetus
fold of skin at base of the nail body.
basal cell carcinoma
most common tumor of the epithelial tissue
contagious superficial skin infection caused by staph or strep infection; commonly affects children usually forming on the face.
the deep vascular inner layer of the skin
outer layer of skin | non-vascular (no blood or nerve supply)
elevated scar that forms due to excessive collagen formation during healing
layer beneath the dermis, made up of loose connective tissue and adipose tissue
provides color to skin and protection from UV rays.
linear tear in the dermis
oil glands in the skin
a sweat gland
modified sweat gland that produces ear wax
the congenital absence of pigmentation in the eyes and skin and hair
an ultraviolet light used to examine the scalp and skin to observe fungal spores.
tinea (all forms)
ringworm, a chronic fungal infection of the skin characterized by scaling, itching, and sometimes painful lesions.
highly contagious, parasitic infestation caused by the "human itch mite" resulting in a rash, pruritus (itching) and a feeling in the skin of "something crawling".
whitish mites that attack the skin of humans and other animals
tissue injury produced by flame, heat, chemicals, radiation, electricity or gases.
skin eruption or rash accompanied by infammation, having specific diagnostic features of an infections viral disease
skin tumor originating from melanocytes in pre-existing nevi, freckles, or skin with pigment; darkly pigmented cancerous tumor.
squamous cell carcinoma
malignant tumor of squamous epithelial tissue; much faster growing than basal cell carcinoma; has greater potential for mestastasis if not treated.
keratosis (all forms)
skin condition in which there is a thickening and overgrowth of the cornified epithelium
verruca; benign, circumscribed, elevated skin lesion that results from hypertrophy of the epidermis, caused by the human papilloma virus.
wart; benign, circumscribed, elevated skin lesion that results from hypertrophy of the epidermis, caused by the human papilloma virus.
common inflammatory disorder seen on the face, chest, back, and neck and which appears as papules, pustules, and comedos.
infestation with lice.
rare, incurable disorder manifested by blisters in the mouth and on the skin and spreading to involve large areas of the body, including the face, chest, umbilicus, back and groin.
Any fungal infection of the nails
mole. visual accumulation of melanocytes, creating a flat or raised rounded macule or papule with definate borders.
herpes zoster / shingles
acute viral infection caused by same virus of Chicken Pox | vesicular lesions or eruptions on the skin following along the nerve pathways of spinal or crania nerves
systemic lupus erythematosus
an inflammatory disease of connective tissue with variable features including fever and weakness and fatigability and joint pains and skin lesions on the face or neck or arms
gradual thickening of the dermis and swelling of the hands and feet to a state in which the skin is anchored to the underlying tissue.
hard, fibrous protein found in the epidermis, hair, nails, enamel of teeth and horns of animals
a partial or complete lack of hair resulting from normal aging, an endocrine disorder, a drug reaction, an anticancer medication, or a skin disease
overgrowth (excessive growth) of the horny layer of the skin
the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply)
white, hard, thickened patches firmly attached to the mucous membrane in areas such as the mouth, penis, or vulva
a rare malignant lesion, soft purple-brown nodule, associated with AIDS, diabetes and malignant lymphoma
Inflammation of Skin
AKA electrodessication | destruction of cancerous tissue with an electric current | also used to control bleeding
heat or caustic substances that burn or scar the skin (coagulation of tissue)
incision made into necrotic tissue resulting from severe burn
5 functions of the skin?
protect bones, vitamen d, sensations, maintain body temp., get rid of persperation
Name the layers of the skin?
dermis | epidermis | subcutaneous
list accessory structures
skin, muscle, blood vessels, fat layer, nerves
regulate involuntary, essential body functions | part of PNS & ANS
regulate involuntary, essential body functions | part of PNS & ANS
what hair and nails are built from | hard fibrous protein
innermost layer of 3 meninges | tightly bound to surface of brain & spinal cord
refusal to acknowledge reality of something
Cerebral Spinal Fluid | flows through brain & around spinal cord to protect them from physical blow or impact
uncontrollable craving for food | results in binges afollowed by purging
uniformly thick layer of skin
deepest layer of skin
w/o feeling or sensation
w/o muscle coordination
any disease of the nerves
meningitis (acute bacterial)
inflammation of the meninges
located in foot and hand
located on outer side of the femur
one of the four quadriceps muscles | -vastus medialis | - vastus intermedius | vastus lateralis
main shaft like port of a bone
long, flat bone located in the center of the thorax (chest)
paralysis of lower extremities | caused by severe injury to spinal cord in thoracic or lumbar region
caused by severe trauma to spinal cord between 5th and 8th cervical vertebrae
syndrome with recurring episodes of excessive irregular electrical activity of CNS
non-invasive treatment that uses sub-freezing temperature to freeze & destroy tissue
removal of debris, foreign objects, and damaged or necrotic tissue from a wound to prevent infection and promote healing
blood brain barrier
protective characteristic of the capillary walls of brain that prevent passage of harmful substances from bloodstream into brain tissue or CSF
congenital brain damage that is permanent but not progressive
increased production of CSF | decreased absorption of CSF | blockage in normal flow of CSF
spina bifida occulta
congenital defect of CNS in which back portion of one or more vertebrae is not closed | dimpling over area may occur
common cancer in HIV patients | arised from musculoskeletal system to manifest in a purpleish-blue lesion
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
sensation of numbness or tingling
loss of ability to read or understand the written word
heat or caustic substances that burn and scar the skin
involuntary response to stimulus
projections that extend from the nerve cell body | receive impulses and conducts them to the cell body
part of the cell that contains the nucleus and cytoplasm
part of the nerve cell that transports nerve impulses away from the nerve cell body
Where does erythrocyte formation take place in adults & children?
Red bone marrow | ribs, vertebrae, epiphyses of humerus, femur, sternum and pelvis in adults | all bones in children and infants
What are the three types of muscle tissue?
Cardiac/heart/striated/involuntary | striated/skeletal/voluntary | smooth/visceral/involuntary
Autonomic Nervous System provides:
involuntary control over smooth and cardiac muscle and glandular activity
manic depressive | psychological disorder characterized by episodes of mania, and depression, alternating between the two, or simultaneously
Petit mal seizures
absence seizure | brief sudden lapse of conscious activity | occurs most often in children
Grand mal / tonic clonic seizures
associated with an aura
MS / Multiple sclerosis
disease process that involves destruction of the myelin sheath | build-up of scar tissue, resulting in progressive neuromuscular dysfunction
progressive organic disorder characterized by chronic personality disintegration, confusion, disorientation of intellectual capacity and function
responsible for skin pigmentation
electroencephalogram | painless procedure that uses small, flat metal discs attached to your scalp to detect electrical activity in your brain
sleep disorder that is characterized by a repeated, uncontrollable desire to sleep, often several times a day
Basal cell carcinoma
most common form of skin cancer
Squamous cell carcinoma
malignancy of the squamous cells of epithelial cells | much faster growing cancer than basal cell carcinoma | greater potential for metastasis if not treated
pain in the head | headache
Narcissistic personality disorder
condition in which there is an inflated sense of self-importance | extreme preoccupation with one's self
point of connection of the two pubic bones
lowest part of the hip bones | strongest of the pelvic bones
List 4 types of arthritis
Osteoarthritis (most common / wear & tear on hips & knees) | Rhematoid (chronic / affects hands & feet) | Gout (acute / inflammation metatarsal joint | Ankylosing Spondylitis (causes spine deformities)
aka degenerative joint disease | affects weight bearing joints
chronic, systemic, inflammatory | affects multiple joints / mainly small peripheral
acute arthritis characterized by inflammation of the first metatarsal of the great toe
affects vertebral column |causes spine deformities