Diseases of the Digestive System

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Pathology key words (Chapter 8) - taken from textbook Essentials of Human Diseases and Conditions, 4th Ed. by M.S. Frazier and J.W. Drzymkowski

abdominal hernia

A condition in which an organ protrudes through an abnormal opening in the abdominal wall.

adenocarcinoma

A cancerous tumor arising from glandular tissue.

anorexia nervosa

Psychological disturbance in which self-imposed starvation and compulsion to be thin leads to denial of hunger.

bariatrics

The study of obesity.

Barret's esophagus

Severe consequence of GERD that replaces normal striated squamous epithelium of the distal esophagus with abnormal columnar epithelium.

bulimia

Behavioral disorder characterized by recurring episodes of binge eating followed by self-induced vomiting or purging.

celiac disease (gluten enteropathy)

A disease of the small intestine characterized by malabsorption, gluten intolerance, and damage to the lining of the intestine.

cholecystitis

Inflammation of the gallbladder; acute, colicky pain, nausea, and vomiting; caused by obstruction of biliary duct by gallstones.

cholelithiasis

A condition in which there is abnormal presence of calculi or gallstones that form in the bile; aka - gallstones.

cirrhosis of the liver

An irreversible chronic degenerative disease that results in the replacement of normal liver cells with hard fibrous scar tissue.

colorectal cancer

Cancer that arises in any part of the colon or rectum.

Crohn's disease

Chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract.

dental caries

Infection resulting in erosion of the tooth surface; aka - tooth decay.

distension

A state of being stretched out, inflated.

diverticulitis

Out patches of mucosa penetrate weak points in the muscular layer of the large intestine.

duodenal ulcers

Ulcers of the first part of the small intestine.

esophageal cancer

Cancer of the esophagus; squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma.

esophageal varices

Dilated submucosal veins that develop in patients with underlying portal hypertension and may result in serious upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

esophagitis

Inflammation and tissue injury of the esophagus.

fistula

An abnormal tube like passageway.

gastric ulcers

Ulceration of the gastric mucosa of the stomach that follows chronic gastritis.

gastroenteritis

Acute inflammation of the stomach and intestines.

gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

The clinical manifestations of regurgitation of stomach and duodenal contents into the esophagus.

gingivitis

Inflammation and swelling of the gums.

hematemesis

Vomiting of blood.

hepatitis A

Highly contagious condition caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV) causing mild, acute liver infection; transmitted through fecal-oral route.

hepatitis B

Inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV); transmitted through percutaneous and perimucosal routes.

hepatitis C

Chronic condition caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) resulting in gradual, insidious liver disease; blood borne transmission.

hepatocellular carcinoma

Cancer of the liver.

herpes simplex

A contagious, recurrent viral infection that affects the skin and mucous membranes; aka - cold sores.

hiatal hernia

A defect in the diaphragm that permits a segment of the stomach to slide into the thoracic cavity.

malabsorption syndrome

A group of disorders in which intestinal absorption of dietary nutrients is impaired.

malnutrition

A disorder of nutrition caused by primary deprivation of protein energy or secondary to deficiency diseases.

malocclusion

Specific angles of malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth.

pancreatic cancer

A neoplasm, usually an adenocarcinoma that occurs more often in the head of the pancreas.

pancreatitis

Acute or chronic inflammation of the pancreas with variable involvement of adjacent or remote organs.

peptic ulcers

Sores or lesions in the mucous membrane of the stomach or upper intestinal tract.

periodontitis

Destructive gum and bone disease around one or more of the teeth.

peritonitis

Inflammation of the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the viscera.

pseudomembranous enterocolitis

Acute inflammation with a plaque-like adhesion of necrotic debris and mucus adhered to the damaged superficial mucosa of the small and large intestine.

temporomandibular joint syndrome (TMJ)

A symptom complex related to inflammation, disease, or dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint.

thrush

Candidiasis of the oral mucosa, involving the mouth, tongue, palate, and gums.

ulcerative colitis

Chronic inflammatory bowel disease affecting the mucosa and submucosa of the rectum and colon.

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