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Andrew Jackson

known as "Old Hickory"; hates the British and the Indians; war hero in the Battle of New Orleans; defeated Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend; believed in the Common Man; reduced voting restictions; 7th president; "Good Ole Boy System"; Indian Removal Act; Trail of Tears; Worcester v. Georgia

John C. Calhoun

War Hawk; supporter of states' rights; believed South Carolina had the right to "nullify", or ignore, federal laws that they thought were wrong, part of Whig Party

Henry Clay

War Hawk; called "the Great Compromiser" because of his ability to get opposing sides to agree; Missouri Compromise; speaker of House from Kentucky, Secretary of State in Adams' administration after the 1824 election; created American System; Compromise of 1850

Martin Van Buren

known as "Little Magician" vice president; destruction of Second Bank of the United States; blocked annexation of Texas; Panic of 1837; Free Soil Party

William Crawford

was Sec. of Treasury under James Monroe Presidency; and a canidate for Presidency in 1824 he represented the south in this election

John Quincy Adams

Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.

Daniel Webster

leader of Whig Party;

Nicholas Biddle

President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it.

Osceola

Seminole leader who resisted the removal of his people from Florida in the 1830s; Second Seminole War

Stephen Austin

Original settler of Texas, granted land from Mexico on condition of no slaves, convert to Roman Catholic, and learn Spanish,, Austin, Texas was named after him; he was the man the brought the first Americans into Texas because he was granted permission by the Mexicans. Leader of Texas settlers in 1820

William Harrison

the Whig Party candidate who was elected President in 1840; died after only one month of being President

Sam Houston

United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863), First president of the Republic of Texas

John Tyler

became President after William Harrison died; not a true Whig; was a Southern Democrat who sided with the Whigs because he did not like Andrew Jackson; begin to oppose Whig agenda; known as the President without a party because he was kicked out of Whig Party

Santa Anna

Mexican general who became president and then dictator over Mexico; led the Mexican army against Texans in the War for Texas Independence

Black Hawk

Sauk Chief, led a force of Sauk and Fox people back to Illinois, their homeland.

William Travis

He was the man at the Alamo missions in command of the Texas forces

annexation

the formal act of acquiring something (especially territory) by conquest or occupation

antislavery

Opposed to human slavery

"favorite son"

candidate that receives the backing of his home state rather than of the national party

common man

The "average" American citizen, whose concerns are represented in government.

nullification

the failure or refusal of a U.S. state to aid in the enforcement of federal laws within its state limits

Spoils System

the practice of giving government jobs to political supporters

rotation in office

Beginning in 1829, Jackson invoked this wholesale practice as his guiding principle, saying plainly that "no one man has any more intrinsic right to office than another."

Democratic-Republicans

a political party started by Thomas Jefferson; believed in states' rights and an economy based on agriculture

Anti-Masonic party

a 19th century minor political party in the United States. It strongly opposed Freemasonry, and was founded as a single-issue party, aspiring to become a major party

Revolution of 1828

Jackson's election showed shift of political power to "the common man" (1828), when the government changed hands from quincy adams to jackson

Twelfth Amendment

requires electors to vote for president and vice president on separate ballots

Corrupt Bargain

Refers to the presidential election of 1824 in which Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, convinced the House of Representatives to elect Adams rather than Jackson.

Tariff of Abominations

1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.

South Carolina Exposition

written by John C. Calhoun denouncing the 1828 Tariff as unconstitutional and that the states should declare it null and void

Tariff of 1832

a tariff imposed by Jackson which was unpopular in the South; South Carolina nullified it, but Jackson pushed through the Force Act, which enabled him to make South Carolina comply through force; Henry Clay reworked the tariff so that South Carolina would accept it, but after accepting it, South Carolina also nullified the Force Act

Specie Circular

executive order issued by Jackson declaring that all purchases of public lands had to be made with gold and silver

slavocracy

Term the North used to describe the Slaveholding South and its "schemes" to gain more slave-land.

Tariff of 1833

Stated that import taxes would gradually decrease by about 10% over a period of eight years until they matched the levels of the Tariff of 1816. Although the state and federal governments were able to strike a compromise, Jackson's near invasion of S. Carolina illustrated the federal government's stance on the power of a state to annul federal laws.

Trail of Tears

the forced removal of the Cherokee to Oklahoma in the winter 1838-1839; many died along the way

Panic of 1837

the economic depression that resulted from the closing of the national bank and the Specie Circular issued by Jackson

Force Bill

authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832

Seminole Indians

They lived in Florida as runaways from other tribes. They waged a seven years war against the Americans to try and remain in the east instead of being forcibly removed to the west.

Divorce Bill

A bill passed by Van Buren in 1837, that divorced the government from banking altogether, and established an independent treasury, so the government could lock its money in vaults in several of the larger cities.

Bank of the United States

the national bank that the government deposited money from taxes into and issued paper money

Pet Banks

state banks where Jackson deposited federal money after it had been wiithdrawn from the national bank

Democratic Party

One of the two major U.S political party;founded in 1828 by Andrew Jackson to support a decentralized government and state's rights

Whig Party

the political party made up of the National Republicans such as Clay, Webster, and some Democrats such as Calhoun; all of whom did not like Andrew Jackson

independent treasury

President Van Buren's plan to keep government funds in its own vualts and do business entirely in hard money rather than keep them in depostits within shaky banks.

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