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Chemistry 122 Chapter 11

oxidizing agent

the substance that brings about oxidation, oxygen

reducing agents

substances that bring about reduction


the production of electricity by chemical changes and the chemical changes produced by electricity

oxidation state

the charge the element would have if all the shared pairs of electrons in the lewis structure for the species were transferred to the more electronegative atom

oxo acids

inorganic oxygen containing acids

oxo anions

the anions of the oxo acids

half reaction of oxidation

electrons are the product of ____ ________ __ _________


the loss of electrons

half reaction of reduction

electrons are a reactant in a


the gain of electrons

disproportionation reactions

reactions in which he same species is both oxidized and reduced

primary standards

substances that are available pure and are used to standardize solutions of other substances


the separation of metals from their ores, and the working or heating of metals so as to give them certain properties


materials that have metallic properties but are not pure metals


alloys that contain more than 50% iron and 0.03-1.5% carbon

blast furnace

iron ore is reduced to metallic iron in a _____ _______

basic oxygen process

the most common process of making iron into steel

electric arc furnaces

used to make high quality steel

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