Chapter 14 Individual Differences in Cognition

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concrete-operational stage

7-11; children develop a set of mental operations that allow them to treat the physical world in a systematic way

conservation

A term used by Piaget to refer to the particular properties of objects that are preserved under certain transformations

crystallized intelligence

Cattell's term for the factor in intelligence that depends on acquired knowledge

factor analysis

in the context of intelligence tests, a statistical method that tries to find a set of factors that will account for performance across a range of tests

fluid intelligence

Cattell's term for the factor in intelligence that depends on the ability to reason or solve problems

formal-operational stage

11-adulthood; child is capable of scientific reasoning

intelligence quotient (IQ)

a measure of general intellectual performance that is normed to have a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15.

pre-operational stage

2-7 years, a child can engage in internal thought about the world (mental processes are intuitive and lack systematicity)

psychometric test

a test of various aspects of a person's intellectual performance

sensory-motor stage

first 2 years of life; children develop schemes for thinking about the physical world. objects as permanent things in the world

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