In the early 19th century dirty European cities, diseases such as cholera ravaged the population.
Irish Famine of 1845 and 1847
As many as half a million Irish peasants with no land or small plots simply starved when disease blighted the potato crop. Hundreds of thousands fled.
During the 19th century, both artisans and factory workers underwent this process. It is used to indicate the entry of workers into a wage economy and their gradual loss of significant ownership of the means of production and of control over the conduct of their own trades. This process occurred rapidly wherever the factory system arose.
This was a system where the factory owner provided the financial capital to construct the factory, to purchase the machinery, and to secure the raw materials. The factory workers contributed their labor for a wage.
Known in France as confection, this was a practice whereby goods, such as shoes, clothing, and furniture, were produced in standard sizes and styles rather than by special orders for individual customers. It increased the division of labor in the workshop.
This was the 1st large-scale European working-class political movement. It sought political reforms that would favor the interests of skilled British workers in the 1830's and 1840's.
London Working Men's Association
In 1836, William Lovett and other London radical artisans formed the London Working Men's Association. Two years later, the group issued the Charter.
The Chartists published a newspaper called the Northern Star.
Connor was the most important Chartist leader who made speeches across Britain.
English Factory Act
after passage of the English Factory Act, many of the British working class demanded shorter workdays for adults.
The charwoman, a common sight across the European continent, symbolized the plight of working women in the early Industrial Revolution.
The British Parliament passed legislation sponsored by Sir Robert Peel that placed police on London streets. They were soon known as bobbies, after the sponsor of the legislation.
Before the 19th century, governments sent criminals to prison ships called hulks.
The British policy from the late eighteenth to the mid-nineteenth centuries of shipping persons convicted of the most serious offenses to Australia as an alternative to capital punishment.
John Howard & Elizabeth Fry & Charles Lucas
They were examples of reformers who exposed the horrendous conditions in prisons and demanded change.
This was a European prison model that was named after the Auburn Prison in New York State. According to it, prisoners were separated during the night but could associate while working during the day.
This was a European prison model in which prisoners were kept rigorously separated at all times.
This was a famous prison near London. There, each prisoner occupied a separate cell and was never allowed to speak to or see another prisoner. Each prisoner wore a mask when in the prison yard. In the chapel, each had a separate stall.
The French sent serious repeat offenders to places such as the infamous Devil's Island off the coast of South America, literally to purge the nation of its worst criminals and to ensure they would never return.
He was an economist who published Essay on the Principle of Population. He contended that population must eventually outstrip the food supply, and that there was little hope of avoiding the disaster except through late marriage, chastity, and contraception.
Essay on the Principle of Population
In this work by Thamos Malthus, he suggested that the population must eventually outstrip the food supply. There was little hope of averting the disaster, except through late marriage, chastity, and contraception.
He was an economist who suggested pessimistic ideas on wages and published Principles of Political Economy.
Principles of Political Economy
In his Principles of Political Economy, David Ricardo stated his belief on wages and workers. He also transformed the concepts of Malthus into the "iron law of wages".
"Iron Law of Malthus"
In his Principles of Political Economy, David transformed the concepts of Malthus into the "iron law of wages". He reasoned that if wages were raised, more children would be produced. They would then enter the labor market and expand the number of workers and lowering wages. As wages fell, workers would produce fewer children. Wages would then rise, and the process would start all over again.
In 1834, all the major German states, except Austria, formed the Zollverein, or free trading union.
He was a German economist who argued for the approach of Zollverein to economic growth during the second quarter of the century.
Britain was the home of the major classical economists, and their policies were widely accepted. The utilitarian thought of Jeremy Bentham increased their influence.
This was the theory associated with Jeremy Bentham that the principle of utility, defined as the greatest good for the greatest number of people, should be applied to government, the economy, and the judicial system.
Fragment on Government and The Principles of Morals and Legislation
In his Fragment on Government and The Principles of Morals and Legislation, Bentham explained the application of the principle of utility would overcome the special interests of privileged groups who prevented rational government. He believed the principle of utility could be applied to other areas of government administration.
Poor Law Commission
The reformed House of Commons passed a new Poor Law that had been prepared by followers of Bentham. This measure established a Poor Law Commission that set out to make poverty the most undesirable of all social situations.
Anti Corn Law League
This league was organized by manufacturers. The league wanted to abolish the tariffs protecting the domestic price of grain.
Early-nineteenth century theories that sought to replace the existing capitalist structure and values with visionary solutions or ideal communities.
This originated from Count Claude Henri de Saint-Simon. He was a liberal French aristocrat who believed that modern society would require rational management. Private wealth, property, and enterprise should be subject to an administration other than that of its owners. In a sense, he was the ideological father of technocracy.
He was a British contributor to the early socialist tradition. He was a firm believer in the environmentalist psychology of the Enlightenment. He thought that if humans were placed in the correct surroundings, they and their character could be improved. He saw no incompatibility between creating a humane industrial environment and making a good profit.
Robert Owen sold his New Lanark factory and then went to the United States, where he established the community of New Harmony, Indiana.
This was a thought by Charles Fourier. He believed the industrial order ignored the passionate side of human nature. He reasoned that social discipline ignored all the pleasure that human beings naturally seek.
The Organization of Labor
In 1839, Louis Blanc published this work. He demanded an end to competition and called for political reform that would give the vote to the working class. He recognized the power of the state to improve life and the conditions of labor.
This is the theory that government and social institutions are oppressive and unnecessary and society should be based on voluntary cooperation among individuals.
He was an anarchist who was a spokesperson for terror. He sought the abolition of both capitalism and the state.
He was an anarchist who wrote What is Property?.
What is Property?
This was Proudhon's book that attacked the banking system. He wanted credit expanded to allow small-property owners or the poor to engage in economic enterprise that would not involve unfair or unearned profits.
This was the theory of Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels that history is the result of class conflict, which will end in the inevitable triumph of the industrial proletariat over the bourgeoisie and the abolition of private property and social class.
He was one of the developers of Marxism. He wrote The Communist Manifesto with Engels.
He was a partner of Marx. He wrote The Condition of the Working Class in England and The Communist Manifesto.
The Condition of the Working Class in England
This was Engels' work that presented a devastating picture of industrial life.
The Communist Manifesto
This was the work of Marx and Engels where they adopted the name communist, and sought the abolition of private property.
This was a later work of Marx.
Alphonse de Lamartine
He was the poet who led the liberal opposition in France and organized a provisional government.
He led the working class groups in France that demanded representation in the cabinet.
These were created by the provisional government to provide work and relief for thousands of unemployed workers.
He led troops to destroy the barricades in Paris and quell potential disturbances.
These confirmed the political predominance of conservative property holders in French life.
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
He was nephew of Napoleon who was victor in the presidential election.
Emperor Napoleon III
Once an empire was proclaimed in December 1852, this became Louis Napoleon's title.
This was a radical group of women who demanded domestic household equality between men and women, the right of women to serve in the military, and similarity in dress for both sexes.
Voix des femmes
This was a daily newspaper of Parisian women that addressed issues of concern to women.
Jeanne Derion and Pauline Roland
These were leaders of the effort to organize workers' groups to improve the economic situation for working women. They were both imprisoned.
He was a Magyar nationalist who attacked Austrian domination of Hungary, called for the independence of Hungary, and demanded a responsible ministry under the Habsburg dynasty.
These were a series of laws that ensured equality of religion, jury trials, the election of a lower chamber, a relatively free press, and payment of taxes by the nobility.
This was the imposition of the Hungarian language on the annexed groups of Romanians, Croatians, and Serbs.
Count Joseph Jellachich
He was sent by the Vienna government to aid the national groups who were rebelling against the rebellious Hungarians.
He was the leader of the first Pan-Slavic Congress.
This issued a manifesto calling for the national equality of Slavs within the Habsburg Empire.
This was a tool that Russia would use in attempts to gain the support of nationalist minorities in Eastern Europe and the Balkans and to bring pressure against both the Habsburg Empire and Germany.
General Count Joseph Wenzel Radetzky
He was the Austrian commander who was forced to retreat from Milan.
King Charles Albert of Piedmont
He aided the rebels in Italy because he wanted to expand the influence of his kingdom in Lombardy.
Pope Pius IX
He had reformed the administration of the Papal States and was seen as liberal.
Count Pelligrino Rossi
He was the liberal minister of the Papal States who was assassinated.
The democratic radicals proclaimed this after Pius IX fled to Naples.
Battle of Novara
This was the battle where Piedmont was defeated, and he abdicated in favor of his son, Victor Emmanuel II.
Victor Emmanuel II
He was the son of Piedmont who became king when his father abdicated.
Frederick William IV
He was the ruler of Prussia who refused to turn his troops on the Berliners when disturbances erupted in Berlin. He implied the movement toward German unification.
He headed Frederick William IV's cabinet. He was a widely respected moderate liberal.
This was when representatives from all the German states gathered in Saint Paul's Church in Frankfurt to revise the organization of the German Confederation.
This means "great German;" it was the argument that the German speaking portions of the Habsburg Empire should be included in a united Germany.
This means "small German;" it was the argument that the German speaking portions of the Habsburg Empire should be excluded from a united Germany.