BIO 105--Ch. 10 Endocrine System

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hypothalamus

below thalamus in brain; makes releasing hormone GHRH

pituitary

in brain; "master gland"

thyroid

anterior side of neck; largest endocrine organ; makes T3 and T4 , and calcitonin

parthyroid

4 glands on posterior part of thyroid; makes PTH

adrenal cortex

superior part of kidney; outer part; makes cortisol & aldosterone

adrenal medulla

superior part of kidney; inner part; makes sympathomimetic "fight or flight" hormones epinephrine & norepinephrine (adrenaline)

pancreas

upper abdomen; makes glucagon and insulin; also is and "exocrine" gland=digestion

islets of Langerhans

hormone producing cells in pancreas

glucagon

increase blood glucose

insulin

decrease blood glucose

ovaries

female reproductive system; makes estrogen & progesterone

testes

male reproductive system; make testosterone

FSH, LH (anterior pituitary)

stimulates ovaries and testes

GH (anterior pituitary)

growth hormone stimulates growth of bones and organs

ACTH (anterior pituitary)

stimulates adrenal cortex --> cortisol

prolactin (anterior pituitary)

milk production

oxytocin (posterior pituitary)

uterine contractions and milk let-down

ADH (posterior pituitary)

"anti-diuretic hormone"-- increases H2O reabsorbtion by kidneys, helps body retain water

TSH

stimulates thyroid to produce calcitonin and T3 & T4

calcitonin

decreases blood Calcium

T3 and T4

increases metabolism

cortisol

anti-inflammation & helps make energy

estrogen

female reproductive functions

testosterone

male reproductive functions

PTH

increases calcium

epinephrine/norepinephrine

for "fight or flight" responses (sympathomimetic)

aldosterone

increases reabsorbtion of sodium (Na+) by kidneys

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