A private meeting of members of a political party to select candidates.
a rule used by the senate to end or limit debate
a joint committee appointed to resolve differences in the Senate and House versions of the same bill
A congressional voting procedure in which members stand and are counted.
use of long speeches to prevent a vote on a bill
those on which both representatives and senators serve.
the legislative leader elected by party members holding the majority of seats in the House or the Senate
political districts in which candidates elected to the House of Representatives win in close elections, usually by less than 55% of the vote.
the legislative leader elected by party members holding a minority of seats in the House or the Senate
an order from the House Rules Committee that permits a bill to be amended on the floor
a legislative bill that deals with matters of general concern
The minimum number of members who must be present for business to be conducted in Congress.
An order from the House Rules Committee that permits certain kinds of amendments but not others to be made into a bill on the legislative floor.
Roll Call Vote
a congressional voting procedure that consists of members answering "yea" or "nay" to their names.
Districts in which incumbents win by margins of 55 percent or more
1913 constitutional amendment allowing American voters to directly elect US senators
an increase in the votes congressional candidates usually get when they first run for reelection
Permanently established legislative committee that are responsible for legislation within a certain subject area
A congressional voting procedure in which members pass between two tellers, the "yeas" first and the "nays" second.
a lawmaking body made up of two chambers or parts
An order from the House Rules Committee that sets a time limit on debate; forbids a bill from being amended on the floor.
an expression of opinion without the force of law that requires the approval of both the House and the Senate but not the president.
An alliance between Republicans and conservative Democrats
a device by which any member of the House, after a committee has had the bill for thirty days, may petition to have it brought to the floor
A procedure to keep the Senate going during a filibuster in which the disputed bill is shelved temporarily so that the Senate can get on with other business.
the ability of members to mail letters to their constituents free of charge by substituting their facsimile signature for postage
a formal expression of congressional opinion that must be approved by both houses of Congress and by the president; constitutional amendments need not be signed by the president.
a congressional process whereby a bill may be referred to several committees
a vote in which a majority of Democratic legislators oppose a majority of Republican legislators
Pork Barrel Legislation
legislation that gives tangible benefits to constituents in several districts or states in the hope of winning their votes in return
a legislative bill that deals only with specific, private, personal, or local matters
A roll call in either house of Congress to see whether the minimum number of representatives required to conduct business is present.
Congressional committees appointed for a limited time and purpose.
a congressional process by which a Speaker may send a bill to a second committee after the first is finished acting.
an expression of opinion either in the House or Senate to settle procedural matters in either body
Attitudinal view of representation
the theory of congressional voting behavior which assumes that members vote on the basis of their own beliefs b/c the array of conflicting pressures on members cancel out one another
Committee of the Whole
device used in the House to expedite the passage of legislation by debate and propsoing amendments (quorum is reduced to 100)
congressional research service (CRS)
responds to congressional requests for info, keeps track of every major bill and produces summaries of legislation for Congressmen
refers to the statistical correspondence of the demographic characteristics of representatives with those of their constituents
General Accounting Office
performs routine audits of the money spent by executive depts, investigates agencies and makes recommendations on every aspect of government
an assembly of party representatives which chooses a government and discusses major national issues. Tight party discipline regulates voting behavior
the extent to which members of a party vote together in the House and Senate
president pro tempore
position created in the Const. to serve as presiding officer of the Senate in the abscence of the Vice President
tradition in Senate in which that body refuses to confirm an appt to federal office when the candidate is personally obnoxious to either senator from the candidate's state
Christmas tree bill
a bill that has lots of riders
congressional budget office
advise Congress on the economic effects of spending programs and to provide information on the cost of proposed policies
speaking fees accepted by members of Congress
congressional districts designed to make it easier for minority citizens to elect minority representatives, drawn so that the majority of their voters are minorities
revisions and additions to legislation made by committees and subcommittees; not part of a bill unless approved by the house of which the committee is a part
organizational view of representation
theory of Congressional voting behavior which assumes that members make voting decisions to please fellow members
representational view of representation
the theory of Congressional voting behavior that assumes that members make voting decisions based on their constituents wishes to ensure reelection
a nongermane amendment to an important bill, added so the measure will "ride" to passage through Congress
House committee that decides which bills come up for a vote, in what order, and under what debate restrictions
Speaker of the House
constitutionally mandated presiding officer of the House, chosen in the caucus of the majority party
term referring to the correspondence between representatives' opinions and those of their constituents