History of Evolutionary Genetics

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Charles Darwin

Developed many theories without any knowledge of genetics. Was a Lamarckian

Pangenesis

All cells of an organism contribute gemmules to the reproductive cells. The inherited gemmules blend together in the offspring.

Lamarck

Lived in 1800. Developed the theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics over a lifetime of an individual organism. He is also known for coining the terms "biology" and "invertebrates".

Monad

Lamarck's view on how organisms rose from inorganic material. Organisms arose separately, and the time since they became monads is attributed to the complexity of the organism.

Fossils

Major evidence for modern evolutionary biologists as transition forms. Fossils for Larmarck are not extinct, just in between forms still living.

Neo-Lamarckian

Spencer, Cope, Agaziz, Bergson, Teihard de Chardin. Believed in orthogenesis, developed in the 1950s. Mostly made of philosophers and geologists. Inherited changes are caused by many factors, including the environment.

Orthogenesis

All species evolve toward perfection by an internal (religious) force. Also known as the Omega point.

Lamarckian

Believe that the environment causes heritable alterations.

Natural selection

Darwin's major theory, otherwise known as (unfortunately) "survival of the fittest. Has four postulates.

Four Postulates of Natural Selection

More offspring are produced than can be supported in the environment (struggle for existence), there is variation between individuals, some variation is inherited by individuals, individuals that possess better variation have a greater chance of reproducing than those carrying maladaptive variations.

Wallace

English naturalist who formulated a concept of evolution that resembled Charles Darwin's (1823-1913). He was discredited by many scientists for his partaking in "woo-woo". He is however credited with his theory of biogeography.

Gradual Evolution

Ideas attributed to Darwin.

Continuous Characteristics

Evolution affects theses according to Darwin.

Galton

Darwin's cousin that rejected pangenesis. Believed characters can be conserved over long lineages and do not blend or dilute out.

Malthus

Population theories that influenced Darwin.

Weismann

A german microscopist who proposed nuclear division as the basis for heredity in cells. Also developed the germ plasm theory. Also disproved theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics by cutting the tails of mice off.

Germ Plasm Theory

Heredity is due to the nucleus of germ cells.

Somatic cells

Normal bodily cells that are not involved in reproduction.

Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

Coded info in DNA is transcribed into an RNA copy of the code, & the code is used to assemble amino acids into a protein (polypeptide) via translation. Similar to the Germ Plasm Theory

Darwinian Dogma

Natural Selection is the all-sufficient cause of evolution.

DeVries

(Mendelian) Observed that pangenes are inherited according to predictable patterns. He also discovered Mendel's paper and popularized it. He coined the term mutation.(1900)

Mendel

The father of genetics. Studies on pea plants showed plant hybrids. Is not a Mendelian, because he did not understand the significance of his work.

Neo-Darwinism

Darwinian evolution stripped of all theories surrounding pangenesis or Lamarckian ideas.

Darwinist

Creationist slur toward evolutionary biologists.

Bateson

(Mendelian) Tried to discredit Darwin. Supported Mendel's paper and advocated that discontinuous variation is most important in species formation. He also coined the terms "segregation", "genetics", "allelomorph" (allele), "homozygote", "heterozygote", "F1", "F2". He published a book called Mendel's Principles of Heredity.

Mendelian dogma

Mutation, not selection, is the major driving force of evolution.

Mendelians

Bateson, DeVries, Morgan. Were geneticists that claimed that evolutionary change is due to mutations (spontaneous gene alternations), and that discontinuous variation is the most significant.

Morgan

(Mendelian) United States biologist who formulated the chromosome theory of heredity (1866-1945)

Darwinian

Weismann, Jordan and Kellogg. Naturalists that postulated that Natural Selection the major factor that's responsible for evolution. Evolution is gradual and occurs exclusively at the level of continuous variation.

Jordan

Darwinian

Kellogg

Darwinian

Hologenesis

Common descent with a Lamarckian component. Beginning of the 20th century idea.

Spencer

Neo-Lamarckian

Cope

Lamarckian

Bergson

Lamarckian

Agaziz

Lamarckian

Teilhard de Chardin

Lamarckian

Johannsen

Started to resolve the Mendelian-Darwinian controversy with using bean length which showed continuous character with a genetic component.

Biometricians

Weldon, Pearson. Mostly statisticians. Believed that ancestry and individual differences are the materials of evolution. Looked at continuous traits.

Weldon

Biometrician

Pearson

Biometrician. Correlation index also created by this math professor.

Nilsson-Ehle

Demonstrated genetic evidence for continuous traits with polygenic inheritance. Demonstrated wheat pigmentation has three alleles involved with incomplete dominance.

polygenic inheritance

combined effect of two or more genes on a single character.

Complete dominance

One allele completely masks the recessive allele.

Incomplete dominance without complete additivity

Three phenotypes for two alleles, where the heterozygote phenotype is somewhere between the two homozygote phenotypes.

Incomplete dominance with complete additivity

Three phenotypes for two alleles, where the heterozygote phenotype is an average of the two homozygote phenotypes. E.g.) Red and white makes a pink heterozygote.

Co-dominance

Both the homozygote phenotypes are expressed in the heterozygote. E.g.) A + B blood types make AB blood with both A&B receptors.

Goodrich

Published the Evolution of Living Organisms (1912). It supported Mendel and Darwin, because it explained how random mutations are the cause of variation, and that organisms are subject to environmental modification, but this is not inherited. He proposed that natural selection allows for a filter for these mutation. He publicized the peppered moth (discontinuous) and Bumpus' sparrows (continuous) experiments.

Hardy

Mathematician that came up with the solution overnight and it was published in science.

Weinberg

Came up with the same equation and it was published in an obscure journal months earlier.

Punnett

Responsible for communicating ideas to Hardy after lecturing.

Hardy-Weinberg Equation

Shows that in the absence of external forces, allele frequencies remain constant through generations of random mating. It is only useful in diploid organisms.

Fisher

(1930s) Statistician that stated that there is no contradiction between Mendelian genetics and evolution by natural selection. This is because Mendelian inheritance does not alter allele frequencies, selection is the most effective source of change, and that mutation and chance play minor roles. He moved the talk away from variation and toward individual alleles. Showed that discrete alleles did not blend.

The Synthesis

Combination of evolution and genetics to form our modern evolutionary theory

Wright

(1930s) Showed how Mendelian genetics can predict complex traits. Also showed the power of selection. Also showed the significance of population size and coined "genetic drift".

Haldane

Modified the HW eq'n to account for fitness differences among different genotypes.

Dobzhansky

Moved to the US and became a professor and influenced geneticists on the importance of natural selection of continuous characteristics. He postulated that speciation requires isolation. He used Drosophila as evidence. Co-founded the biological species definition. (1900s)

Mayr

Ornithologists supported Dobzhansky, showed own research for speciation. Co-founded the biological species definition.

Simpson

Combined synthetic theory and paleontological data, with fossils and rates of evolution.

Stebbins

Showed sympatric speciation

Sympatric speciation

Speciation occurring within the same place.

Allopatric speciation

Evolve separately because of geographic separation and then genetic divergence occurs.

Huxley

Coined "the modern synthesis"

Selection and Variation

Was used to attack, but with electrophoretic studies of wild populations, it is possible to see that there is tremendous variation between individuals.

Neutral Theory of Molecular evolution

Proposed because there is so much variation, that most polymorphic traits are selectively neutral and evolve through drift. Used to invalidate Natural Selection, but cannot in many cases. Invented by Kimura. (1960s)

Punctuated Equilibrium

Evolutionary model suggesting species often diverge in spurts of relatively rapid change, followed by long periods of little change. Proposed by Elderedge and Gould.

Lysenko

Russian Darwinian that rejected Mendelian inheritance that drove Dobzhansky out.

Darwinian Theory Of Evolution

Proposed by Mayr. 1. Evolution (genetic change), 2. Common descent of species, 3. Diversification by speciation. 4. Gradualism. 5. Natural Selection.

Social Darwinism

Applying Darwin's theories as a justification for evil political or economic persuits and vehicles for the dissemination of pseudoscientific bigotry.

Wilson

Wrote a book on behaviour through natural selection, which caused an uproar.

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