APUSH Chapter 29

27 terms by shilton

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Henry Demarest Lloyd

He wrote the book "Wealth Against Commonwealth" in 1894. It was part of the progressive movement and the book's purpose was to show the wrong in the monopoly of the Standard Oil Company.

Florence Kelley

reformer who worked to prohibit child labor and to improve conditions for female workers

Upton Sinclair

He was the author of the sensational novel, THE JUNGLE, published in 1906. His intention was to describe the conditions of canning factory workers. Instead, Americans were disgusted by his descriptions of dirty food production. His book influenced consumers to demand safer canned products.

Ida Tarbell

Ida Tarbell was a "Muckraker" who wrote in the magazine McClure's (1921). As a younger woman, in 1904, Tarbell made her reputation by publishing the history of the Standard Oil Company, the "Mother of Trusts."

Gifford Pinchot

head of the U.S. Forest Servic under Roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them

Conservation

Movement in America to begin preserving natural resources and stop the rapid destruction of these resources and land.

initiative

the process of petitioning a legislature to introduce a bill. It was part of the Populist Party's platform in 1891, along with referendum and recall. These all intended to make the people more responsible for their laws and allow them to make political decisions rather than the legislature.

referendum

When citizens vote on laws instead of the state or national governments. The referendum originated as a populous reform in the populist party, but was later picked up by the progressive reform movement.

recall

The people could possibly remove an incompetent politician from office by having a second election.

Meat Inspection Act

Passed in 1906. It stated that the preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection. Part of the Progressive reforms, which helped out the consumer.

Muckrakers

Muckrakers- nickname given to young reporters of popular magazines. These magazines spent a lot of money on researching and digging up "muck," hence the name muckrakers. This name was given to them by Pres. Roosevelt- 1906. These investigative journalists were trying to make the public aware of problems that needed fixing.

Seventeenth Amendment

The Seventeenth Amendment was adopted in 1913 shortly after "direct primaries" were adopted. U.S. Senators were previously chosen by state legislators who were controlled by political machines. These Senators were known for dealing with mainly business matters in politics. The 17th Amendment stated that Senators were now elected by popular vote from the citizens.

Eighteenth Amendment

Amendment forbids the sale and manufacture of liquor and made it illegal in 1919.

Elkins Act

The Elkins Act of 1903 was an act passed by Congress against the Railroad industries. It was specifically targeted at the use of rebates. It allowed for heavy fining of companies who used rebates and those who accepted them. It is part of the Progressive Reform movement.

Northern Securities Case

The Northern Securities Company was a holding company in 1902. The company was forced to dissolve after they were challenged by Roosevelt, his first trust-bust.

Women's Trade Union League

a U.S. organization of both working class and more well-off women formed in 1903 to support the efforts of women to organize labor unions and to eliminate sweatshop conditions

Muller v. Oregon

1908 - Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health

Lochner v. New York

overturns new york law setting 8 hr maximum working hours for bakery workers- 1905

Triangle Shirtwaist Five

largest industry disaster-fire killed 146: led to upgrades

Pure food and Drug Act

It was created in 1906 and was designed to prevent the adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals. It was made to protect the consumer.

Sierra Club

oldest and largest grassroots environmental organization in the United States. It was founded on May 28, 1892 in San Francisco, California by the well-known conservationist and preservationist John Muir, who became its first president. The Sierra Club has hundreds of thousands of members in chapters located throughout the US, and is affiliated with Sierra Club Canada.

Yosemite National Park

a national park in California famous for its waterfalls and rock formations

dollar diplomacy

Taft's foreign policy which replaced "bullets with dollars"; involved investors instead of military. Eventually worked better in Latin America than China.

Payne-Aldrich Act

Signed by Taft in March of 1909 in contrast to campaign promises. Was supposed to lower tariff rates but Senator Nelson N. Aldrich of Rhode Island put revisions that raised tariffs. This split the Republican party into progressives (lower tariff) and conservatives (high tariff).

Ballinger-Pinchot Affair

Ballinger, who was the Secretary of Interior, opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska against Roosevelt's conservation policies. Pinchot, who was the Chief of Forestry, supported former President Roosevelt and demanded that Taft dismiss Ballinger. Taft, who supported Ballinger, dismissed Pinchot on the basis of insubordination. This divided the Republican Party.

Old Guard

controlled the Republican National Committee, viewed Taft as the candidate of the conservatives, and gave him all but 19 of the delegates. Since Roosevelt did not get the delegates he needed he encouraged his progressive. supporters at a rally to follow him and leave the party.

Square Deal

Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers

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