Davern Elements- WITH EXAMPLES

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Alliteration

The repeated use of stressed words or syllables.
(ex: "we lurk late, we strike straight")

Assonance

The repetition of similar vowels in nearby words.
(ex: "hear the mellow wedding bells." "el" sound.)

Apostrophe

When a character addresses something that is not actually present. (ex: "Ingratitude! Thou marble-hearted friend")

Cacophony

Words that have a sharp, hissing or unmelodius sounds.
(ex: the Jabberwocky has loads of them)

Chiasmus

When two phrases are parallel in syntax, but the words are reversed. (ex: "fair is foul, and foul is fair")

Conceit

Using an unusual comparison to compare two things.
(ex: "now is the golden crown like a deep well/ that owes two buckets, filling one another")

Colloquialism

A word or phrase used in everyday speech, like slang.
(ex: "If Mr. Finch don't wear you out, I will!)"

Deus ex machina

An unexpected intervention from a supreme being that saves a character at the last second.
(ex: when rescue boats save Ralph in Lord of the Flies)

Epithet

A short nickname attached to a character's name that describes them.
(ex: "the wine-dark sea" or "grey-eyed Athena")

Hyperbole

A point made with exaggeration.
(ex: "we hiked like ten-thousand miles")

Dramatic Irony

When the audience knows something important the characters do not know.
(ex: when the audience knew that Juliet was not dead, but Romeo thought she was and killed himself)

Structural Irony

An implification of reversed meaning that continues through the entire story.
(ex: Gene lying about pushing Finn out of the tree all throughout A Separate Peace)

Verbal Irony

Implying a different meaning than the one stated.
(ex: Johnathan Swift's "A Modest Proposal")

In medias res

Literally means "in the middle of things". Starting in the middle of the story instead of the beginning.
(ex: Percy Jackson- The Sea of Monsters: "my nightmare started like this.")

Litotes

When a point is made by negating a statement that declares the opposite. (ex: Casey at the Bat: "the outlook wasn't brilliant for the Mudville Nine that day")

Meiosis

Using understatement in literature.
(ex: "It isn't very serious. I have this tiny little tumor of the brain.")

Metonymy

When the name of an entity is substituted by something similar. (ex: using "the throne" as "the king")

Mood/Atmosphere

The mood or tone of a literary work.
(ex: when three witches enter in Macbeth: creates an ominous tone)

Onomatopoeia

A word that sounds like the sound it represents.
(ex: "water plops into pond, splish splash downhill")

Oxymoron

Two aspects that contradict each other.
(ex: "antiques made daily" or "pretty ugly")

Paradox

When a seemingly impossible/contradicting statement reveals the truth.
(ex: Animal Farm: "All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others")

Paralipsis

The method of making a point by passing over it.
(ex: "the music, the service at the feast, the noble gifts for the great and small, the rich adornment of Theseus' palace...all these things I do not mention now")

Pastoral

Type of literature that has a rural theme or country setting.
(ex: "There we will sit upon the rocks, and see the shepards feed the flocks")

Pathetic Fallacy

Personification in which aspects of nature are given humanlike qualities.
(ex: "there was a caress in the soft winds")

Periphrasis

When a point is stated in a roundabout way rather than saying it directly.
(ex: "and those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual.")

Synecdoche

When part of something represents a whole.
(ex: "blue collars" to describe the working class)

Tone

Designated attitude a piece of literature evokes.
(ex: I don't think this one needs an example)

Trope

Blanket term for most figures of speech in literature.
(ex: "Milton! thou shouldst be living at this hour: England hath need of thee" is apostrophe)

Ballad

A narrative poem of quatrains of iambic tetrameter alternating with iambic trimeter.
(ex: "Ballad of the Cool Fountain" by Anonymous)

Blank Verse

Unrhymed iambic pentameter.
(ex: "The Ball Poem" by John Berryman)

Couplet

A pair of consecutive lines that rhyme.
(ex: "how like Eve's apple doth thy beauty grow / if thy sweet virtue answer not thy show")

Enjambment

Also called run-on lines. When a sentence or clause continues onto the next line.
(ex: "Out, Out" by Robert Frost)

Free Verse

Type of poem that does not use meter or consistent rhyme.
(ex: "Fog" by Carl Sandburg)

Haiku

Type of poem that has three lines: 5 syllables, 7 syllables, 5 syllables.
(ex: "An old silent pond, a frog jumps into the pond, splash! silence again")

Iambic Pentameter

A type of poetic meter that uses five iambs (a poetic foot) per line. (ex: "When you/are old/and grey/and full/of sleep")

Limerick

A five-lined poem consisting of two lines of anapestic trimeter, two lines of anapestic dimeter, and a line of trimeter.
(ex: pretty much any poem that starts with "there was once a man from...")

Ode

A long, elaborate stanzaic poem dealing with a specific subject, often reverently.
(ex: "Ode to the West Wind" by Percy Shelley)

Ottava Rima

An eight-line stanza of poetry composed in iambic pentameter following the ABABABCC rhyme scheme.
(ex: "Don Juan" by Canto the First)

Prosody

Technical aspects of verse relating to rhythm, stress and meter.
(ex: "Song" by William Blake)

Quatrain

Four lines of poetry.
(ex: any poem with four-line stanzas)

Sestina

A poem of six-lined stanzas and a three-line envoy, originally without rhyme, in which stanza repeats the end words of the lines of the first stanza, but in a different order.
(ex: "Sestina d'Invierno" by Anthony Hecht)

Italian Sonnet

Sonnet composed of an octave (8 lines) and a sestet (6 lines). Rhyme Scheme for the octave is ABBAABBA and the rhyme scheme varies for the sestet.
(ex: "Sonnet" by James DeFord)

Shakespearean Sonnet

Sonnet composed of three quatrains and a final couplet. Rhyme scheme: ABAB CDCD EFEF GG.
(ex: "Sonnet 18" by Shakespeare)

Spenserian Sonnet

Sonnet composed of three quatrains and a couplet in iambic pentameter. Rhyme Scheme: ABAB BCBC CDCD EE.
(ex: "Amoretti" by Edmund Spencer)

Spondee

Two stressed syllables in a row.
(ex: "Be near me when my light is low" because "be" and "near" are stressed)

Tercet

A group of three lines in a poem, usually sharing the same rhyme. (ex: "And as the smart ship grew/ In stature, grace and hew/in shadowy silent distance grew the iceberg too")

Terza Rima

Type of poem in which tercets are linked by a pattern of shared rhymes. Rhyme Scheme: ABA, BCB, CDC, etc.
(ex: "Acquainted with the Night" by Robert Frost")

Villanelle

A short poem of fixed form, written in tercets, usually five in number, followed by a quatrain, all being based on two rhymes.
(ex: "Do Not Go Gentle into that Good Night" by Dylan Thomas

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