Midterm - AAOD

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The questions who, what, why, when, where, how, and how much were introduced as a way to

Inform and help us analyze problem drug use

If a substance is consistently used in particular kinds of situations (e.g., at parties, as opposed to when one is alone), it can help us to understand

There is evidence of a drinking problem and if it is seen as a "normal" behavior

One of the four principles of psychoactive drug use is that

Drugs, per se, are not good or bad. (There are no "bad drugs.")

One of the four principles of psychoactive drugs is that "every drug has ____________."

Multiple Effects

One of the four principles of psychoactive drug use is that "the effect of any psychoactive drug depends on ___________________."

The individual's history and expectations.

Drug use that is not common within a social group and that is disapproved of by the majority, causing members of a group to take corrective action when it occurs, is

Deviant drug use

A drug that is unlawful to possess or use is defined in the text as

Illicit

Attitudes, family characteristics, and other factors that are correlated with higher rates of drug use are known as

Risk factors

One of the most important protective factors for drug use is

Perceiving that there are strong sanctions against substance use at school

Some drugs have the effect that, every time you take the drug, you increase slightly the probability that you will take it again. This process is referred to as

Reinforcement

The U.S. government in the 1800s had few regulations on industry and in general took a "hands-off" approach to government that has been referred to by the term

Laissez-faire

The text lists three concerns that led to the adoption of the first U.S. laws regulating what we now call controlled substances. Which of these was NOT one of the three?

*(The Three were: toxicity, dependence, and crime)*

When using a substance makes normal activities such as driving result in harmful accidents, this is called

Behavioral Toxicity

Acute drug effects are those that

Come on suddenly

Which is an example of chronic physiological toxicity?

Drug use or not wearing seatbelt

The Drug Abuse Warning Network

DAWN - collects data on drug-related emergency room visits from hospital emergency departments in major metropolitan areas around the country. For each drug or drug type, staff members (hospital) add up the number of visits associated with that particular drug and give the info to DAWN.

Which of these substances has consistently been near the top of both the emergency room visits and drug-related deaths lists for the past 20 years?

Cocaine

The occurrence of a withdrawal syndrome is evidence of

Physical dependence

Those who have received a "personality disorder" diagnosis, such as antisocial personality disorder

Are most likely to also have one of the substance-use disorder diagnoses.

Which of the following drugs is most accepted as contributing to crimes and violence?

Alcohol (or Marijuana)

The period between 1890 and 1920 in the U.S. was characterized by reformism, in that many laws were passed that restricted various industries and activities in an effort to improve society. The same period was characterized by widespread

Racism

In the early 1800s, _____________ was the medical doctor's most reliable and effective medicine that was used for a variety of conditions, but mainly for pain relief.

Opium

One concern that led to the initial passage of federal drug-control legislation in 1906 was

The alcohol and other habit-forming drug content of the patent medicines

In the early 1900s in the U.S., fears about opium and cocaine were closely linked to

Chinese

The 1906 U.S. law that prohibited interstate commerce in adulterated or misbranded foods and drugs was called the

Pure Food and Drugs Act

The Harrison Act of 1914

"An act to provide for the registration of, with collectors of internal revenue, and to impose a special tax upon all persons who produce, import, manufacture, compound, deal in, dispense, or give away opium or coca leaves, their salts, derivatives, or preparations, and for other purposes." * Basically it's a law that regulated and taxed the production, importation, and distribution of opiates." *

When the Pure Food and Drugs Act was first passed, drugs were legally required to be

Accurately labeled with contents and dosage and was first done on a voluntary basis.

Depending on their intended use, glass pipes, alligator clips, and cigarette papers may be classified as

Drug Paraphernalia

The process of maintaining our internal environment (temperature, water balance, etc.) within certain limits is called

Homeostasis

Parasympathetic and sympathetic refer to the two branches of the

Autonomic Nervous System

Parkinson's disease produces tremors and muscular rigidity because of damage to

The dopamine neurons in the Basal Ganglia

The neurotransmitter at the end organ of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is

Norepinephrine

Weight control, aggression, impulsivity, and psychological depression have all been associated with

Serotonin

Neurotransmitter molecules are released into the small space between two neurons called the

Synapse

Specialized structures that recognize neurotransmitter molecules and, when activated, cause a change in the electrical activity of the neuron, are called

Postsynaptic Cell

Most drugs have three different kinds of names. Which of them belongs to a specific manufacturer?

The Brand name

The group of psychoactive drugs called stimulants includes

Caffeine, cocaine and amphetamines.

Among the psychoactive drugs, alcohol is classified as a(n)

Depressant

Which of these is given its own classification category, due to its complex effects at different doses?

Marijuana

Nonspecific effects of taking a drug are those that do not depend on its chemical activity. They are also referred to as

Placebo

When neither the person taking the drug nor the person evaluating the effects of the drug knows which people are getting the experimental drug and which people are getting the placebo, this procedure is referred to as a(n)

Double-blind procedure

The threshold on a dose-response curve is the

The point at which a physiological or psychological effect begins to be produced

Cocaine is derived from the ___________ plant.

Coca

The use of cocaine by members of the general public in Europe and North America was initially in the form of

Coca leaf extract

Dr. W. S. Halstead, the "father of American surgery," experimented with cocaine's ability to produce

Local anesthesia

Which famous physician studied cocaine as a treatment for morphine dependence and depression?

Sigmund Freud

The most common way cocaine is used recreationally is by

Snorting

What is cocaine still used for medicinally?

Surgery in the nasal, laryngeal, and esophageal areas

Cocaethylene

A chemical formed when ethanol and cocaine are co-administered

Illicit cocaine comes to the U.S. primarily from

Three South American countries: Peru, Bolivia, and Colombia

Amphetamine was developed initially as a substitute for a closely related chemical derived from the Chinese herb ma huang. That chemical is

Ephedra or Ephedrine

Which of these was NOT one of the early medical uses for amphetamine first studied in the 1930s?

Narcolepsy, reducing hyperactivity in children, appetite-depressant, "bennies" as a "stay awake" drug for truck drivers.

Paranoid psychosis and compulsive, repetitive behavior can be produced by

High doses of amphetamine use

The major advantage of the benzodiazepines over the barbiturates seems to be the

That they are safer and have less dependence factors

Librium (chlordiazepoxide) and Valium (diazepam) were the first widely sold

Early 70's

The "date-rape" drug Rohypnol (flunitrazepam)

1990's know as a new version of the "Mickey Finn." It's a benzodiazepine sold as a hypnotic. Often mixed with alcohol.

The CNS depressants include various prescription drugs referred to as

Sedative-hypnotics

One of the oldest gaseous anesthetics, popularly known as "laughing gas," is

Nitrous oxide

What household product contains nitrous oxide?

Whipping-cream

Each year, more mentally ill persons are _______ than are admitted to state mental hospitals.

Jailed

A major disturbance of intellectual and social functioning in which there is a loss of contact with reality is called

Psychosis

Both depressed and manic symptoms appear in the general classification of

Mood Disorders

Bipolar disorder refers to

A mood disorder in which both manic and depressive episodes are occurring

Phenothiazines and neuroleptics were terms used to describe the early forms of

Antipsychotics

People taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors for depression must avoid

Foods with a high tyramine content (like aged cheese, chianti wine, smoked or pickled fish)

The initial effect of tricyclic antidepressants is to

Interfere with the reuptake into the terminal of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin.

Prozac was the first

SSRI Antidepressant drug

The acceptance of the mood stabilizer _____________ was slowed by a series of overdose poisonings and by the fact that the drug is one of the basic elements and could not be patented.

Lithium

The perspective that symptoms of a mental disorder identify a diagnosis that points to a cause and then a cure is referred to in the text as the

Medical Model

Alcoholic beverages form when yeasts act upon sugars in the process of

Fermentation

Heating a solution of alcohol and water, then collecting the alcohol vapors and condensing them into a liquid with a higher alcohol content, is called

Distillation

The alcoholic content of beverages is indicated by the term "proof," which is

A measure of a beverage's alcohol content which is twice the alcohol percentage

In most commercial beers sold in the U.S., the alcohol content is about

A little over 4 %

Age 21 became the uniform legal drinking age across the U.S. in

1988

Americans drink most of their alcohol in the form of

Beer

Which of these substances speeds up the absorption of alcohol?

Carbonated beverages

The liver enzyme primarily responsible for metabolizing alcohol is

Acetaldehyde

The total number of alcohol-related traffic fatalities per year in the U.S.

40,000

Fairly high doses of alcohol interfere with erection of the penis in males, probably because of

Impaired attention to or processing of erotic information

In studies relating homicide to alcohol use,

About 50 % of murderers had been drinking

Over one thousand people die in the U.S. each year from simple alcohol overdose. It is particularly dangerous to

Drink to the point of vomiting and then begin drinking again after vomiting

Tremors, hallucinations, delusions, and seizures are all symptoms associated with

Withdrawal

We can get an idea of why someone is using a drug by examining when and where he or she uses it.

True

There are some drugs that we should just define as being bad drugs.

False

Every drug has multiple effects.

True

The term "laissez-faire" refers to the tendency of news media to sensationalize drug problems.

False

One important factor that led Congress to adopt the first laws regulating what we now call controlled substances was the association of drug use with crime.

True

Chronic drug effects refer to those that are due to prolonged exposure to the drug.

True

The DAWN system tells us exactly how many deaths are caused by a specific drug each year.

True (Is estimated though)

The period between 1890 and 1920 in the U.S. was characterized partly by being a low point in race relations.

True

The 1906 Pure Food and Drugs Act required drug manufacturers to prove that their drugs were an effective treatment for some diseases.

False (It only required manufactures to properly label ingredients)

The Harrison Act of 1914 made it illegal to possess or use heroin or marijuana.

False (It was opiates and coca leaves/cocaine)

The FDA requires that a drug company report to them on the results of three phases of human testing before they will approve a new drug to be sold as a prescription medicine.

True

In order for drug molecules to readily cross the blood-brain barrier, they must be somewhat lipophilic (soluble in oil).

True

The complex branching parts of a neuron that receive information from other neurons are called dendrites.

True

Parkinson's disease is caused by damage to serotonin neurons in the raphe nuclei.

False (Damage to the dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia)

A drug's generic name can only be used by one company.

False (A brand name can only be used by one company)

Caffeine and cocaine are both considered to be stimulant drugs.

True

Most of our drugs originally came either directly or indirectly from

Plants

The most recent (2000) version of the American Psychiatric Association's classification system for mental disorders is called the

DSM-IV-TR

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