AP US History - Chapter 30

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The War to End War

George Creel

Journalist who headed Committee on Public Info. Created propaganda to get people willing to go to war. too good oversold Wilson's ideals - world expected too much

Zimmerman Note

proposed secret alliance btwn Mexico & Germany

Eugene Debbs

Socialist leader - convicted under Espionage Act sentenced to 10 years in prison

unrestricted submarine warfare,

caused WIlson to break diplomatic relations w/ Germany

Espionage Act of 1917 & Sedition Act of 1918

reflected fears about Germans and anti-war Americans

Scheck v US (1919)

Supreme Court ruled freedom of speech can be revoked when such speech poses a clear and present danger

Bernard Baruch

Headed WAr Industries Board - feeble powers, disbanded w/in days after armistice

Herbert Hoover

headed Food Administration (hero bec. he led massive food drive to feed starving in Belgium). Wage propaganda campaign to get people to ratio food - save food for export

Alice Paul

led National Woman's party - Quaker who opposed the war

Henry Cabot Lodge

Republican chairman of Senate Committee on Foreign Relations - wasn't asked to go to peace talks, tried to defeat treaty of Versaille by reading 26 page document aloud in congresWislons

Warren G Harding

Republican Presidential Candidate - affable & malleable Ohioan, wealthy, back slapping small town newspaper editor, said he would work for a vague Association of Nations (not a League) voted in by women

James M. Cox

Democratic Candidate 1920 election - Governor of Ohio - supported League (FDR was his running mate)

self-determination

France demanded coal-rich German inhabited Rhineland & Saar Valley. Wilson opposed bec. it would violate their self determination

collective security

Provided by League of Nations - Wilson hoped this would protect all countries

conscription

Only way Americans could get an army - military draft required registration of all males age 18-45,

normalcy

people tired of idealism, intellectual, moralistic leaders thankful for a 2nd rate pres

Fourteen Points

Wilson's speech aimed at convincing America that fighting was the right thing to do

League of Nations

international organization that Wilson dreamed would provided a system of collective security

Committee on Public Information

Propaganda committee - get people willing to fight

Industrial Workers of the World

Wobblies - Industrial Workers of the World (aka I won't works) did not support war, these workers victims of worst working conditions in country (fruit & lumber)

19th Amendment

Gave Women right to wote

18th Amendment

Prohibition - prohibited Alcohol.

Bolsheviks

Communists in Russia, seized power in 1917, retreated from war in 1918 allowing Germans to fight France in West

doughboys

US Army infantry man, often sent to fight with very little training

Big Four

Wilson, Vittorio Orlando of Italy, George Clemenceau of France, David Lloyd George of Britain

irreconcilables

William Borah of Idaho & Hiram Johnson of CA, militant isolationists, opposed League of Nations -their opposition was good for Allied adversaries, gave them stronger bargaining position

Treaty of Versailles

only 4 of Wilson's 14 points were honored, Vengence was tone not reconciliation. Made Wilson a fallen idol, condemned by liberals and imperialists alike

Work or Fight Rule of 1918

any unemployed male would be immediately drafted - discourages strikes

Wobblies

Industrial Workers of the World (aka I won't works) did not support war, these workers victims of worst working conditions in country (fruit & lumber)

National War Labor Board

headed by WilliamTaft - headed off labor disputes that might hamper war effort

1919 Steel strike

greatest strike in history, 250 thous strike to get owners to recognize their right to organize, owners brought in 30,000 African americans to break strike

Race Riots

sparked by African American migration to primarily white areas like St. Louis & Chicago.

National Woman's party

Pacifist group opposed war, led by Alice Paul

Nat'l American Woman Suffrage Association

supported the war, argued women take part in war effort to earn role in shaping te peace

Liberty Loans - Victory Loans

sponsored by treasury dept, earned 21 billion $ 2/3 cost of war.

Chateau -Thierry

first major engagement of american troops in European war

2nd battle of the Marne

marked beginning of a gErman withdrawal

St. Hihiel &Meuse-Argonne offensive

Two major battles fought by Amerians - MEuse -ARgonne largest battle in American history (lasted 47 days 1.2 million American troops)

General John J. Pershing

American commander in WWI

Paris Peace Conference

little more than old prewar colonialism, land divided up amongst victors, Wilson's #1 goal was to establish League of Nations

Security Treaty

France compromised on demand for Rhineland in exchange Britain & US promised to come to France's aid if Germany ever invaded again

Article X

controversial, alarmed congress bec. it morally bound US to aid any member victimized by external agression

Wilson's tour

Wilson toured country looking for support of treaty, embraced in Rocky Mtn region & Pacific coast, had a stroke in Pueblo Colorado

Republican plan for Treaty

tried to postpone it at first then wanted to ammend the treaty. Wilson fought back from his sick bed called upon all Democrats

Lodge reservations

14 formal reservations put forth by Senator Lodge -reserve right for Congreess to declare war

defeat of Treaty

because of Wilson's stubborness, would not compromise

Solemn Referendum of 1920

Wilson proposed to settle the treaty issue in Presidential campaign.

Harding's victory

death sentence for League of Nations - now weak bec. US wasn't included

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