APUSH Unit 5

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From the American Pageant 11th edition (all similar)

Price Discrimination

changing prices to hurt certain crowd

U-Boats

Germany military submarines used in WWI

Indemnity

payment as compensation for a loss like in war.

Imperialsim

the policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, polical, or military control over weaker territories

Fourteen Points

Wilson's peace plan assuring confidence in WWI "A war to end all wars"

League of Nations

An organization of nations proposed by Wilson, formed after World War I to promote cooperation and peace preventing further wars.

Self-Determination

the right for all peoples to determine their own economic, social and cultural development.

Capstone Point

idea for a general association of nations formed to make mutual agreements.

1st Point

Open covenants of Peace--No more secret treaties--

2nd Point

Freedom of navigation--you can sail 14 miles from a country unrestrictively.

3rd Point

Equality of trade--no secret trade negotiations

4th Point

National armamanets reduced to minimum for domestic safety--no huge armies

Central Powers

Side of WWI consisting of Germany, Bulgaria, Austria-Hungary and Ottoman empire

Allie Powers

Side of WWI consisting of Great Britian, France, U.S., and Russia

Spheres of Influence

areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly

Espionage Act

1917 act gave the government new ways to combat spying

Sedition Act of 1918

Attempt to control morale, it forbade Americans from using disloyal language about U.S. Gov't.

Doughboys

A nickname for the inexperienced but fresh American soldiers during WWI

18th ammendment

Prohibited the manufacture, sale and transport of alcoholic beverages

19th ammendment

Adopted in 1920, gave women the right to vote

Collective Bargaining

Negotiation between an employer and 1 or more trade union often relating to past results

Steel Strike of 1919

Largest strike; work stoppage that began when some 365,000 steelworkers in Pennsylvania walked off the job to demand recognition of their union, higher wages, and shorter hours

Conscientious objector

one who refuses to serve in the armed forces on grounds of morals

George Creel

Propagandist who headed the Committee on Public Information, for promoting the war effort in WWI

Woodrow Wilson

American President during WWI - had 14 point plan - key figure in League of Nations

AF of L

A labor union created by Samuel Gompers that was the ONLY labor union that only accepted skilled workers

African Americans

Often strike breakers or replacement workers who migrated North during WWI.

Opium Wars

War between Britain and China, over opium trade ending with the opening of 5 chinese ports to foreign merchants, and the grant of other commercial and diplomatic privileges, giving room for exploitation.

Open Door Policy

No Gov't can prohibit commerce from another gov't, issued with China Affair.

Boxer Rebellion

Group of chinese banded together to throw out "foreign devils". Lead to more troops being sent.

Russo Japanese War

War between Russia and Japan (collision of empires) out of rival imperial ambitions for Manchuria and Korea

Battle of Tsushima

May 1905, the japanese's navy surprised a Russian fleet unprepared and wiped them.

Theodore Roosevelt

26th pres, leader of Rough Riders and hero of Spanish American War, known for big stick quote.

Cowboy diplomacy

Pejorative term used to describe resolution of international conflicts with risk, force and or military.

Bad Neighbor policy

Twist on TR's policy, L. America irritated at US' imposing sphere of influence in the Caribbean Sea

Panama Canal

Built to improve trade with Pacific and Atlantic coasts, greatly reducing time.

Yellow Journalism

Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensationalism and attract readers

Fascism

a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition

London Conference

1933--66 nations tried to develop solution to Great Depression ;; failed to produce results & strengthened American isolationism

Tydings-McDuffie Act

provided independence for Philippines after 12 years of economic and political guarding. (Navy bases stayed)

Seventh Pan-American Conference

Where FDR renounced the Roosevelt Corollary in Latin America.

Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act

1934 activated low-tariff policies ;; for relief & recovery ;; boosted American trade ;; amended Hawley-Smoot by lowering rates 50% provided that others do the same

Cordell Hull

Secretary of State under FDR, founder of the UN, believed trade was two way street.

Joseph Stalin

Communist dictator of the Soviet Union

Benito Mussolini

Italian fascist dictator who attacked ethiopia in 1935.

Adolf Hitler

German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945)

Hideki Tojo

Japan's prime minister. ordered attack on pearl harbor

Johnson Debt Default Act

1934 forbade any countries that still owed the U.S. money from borrowing any more cash

Nye Committee

1934 investigated if munitions manufacturers were pro-war to make $

Neutrality Acts

series of laws passed by Congress in 1935 that banned arms sales or loans to countries at war

Francisco Franco

Fascist leader of the Spanish revolution, helped by Hitler and Mussolini

Japan

Invade China in 1937, but FDR didn't consider it war.

Quarantine Speech

Speech that marks turning point in US policy from isolationism to interventionism. FDR condemning Fascism as a disease needing embargoes to be quarantined.f

Munich Conference

Allies met giving Hitler Sudetenland, if he left Czechloslavakia, instead he took both.

The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact

The Treaty of non-aggression between German and the Soviet Union.

Neutrality Act of 1939

allowed European democracies to buy war materials on a "cash-and-carry" basis

Finland

Soviet Union took over this country despite $30 Million from US for non-military purposes.

The Phony War

ended when Hitler took over Denmark and Norway, then Netherlands and Belgium, then France.

Havana Conference

U.S. warned Germany it could not take over colonies in Americas. Shared Monroe Doctrine.

America First Committee

Propoganda group said US should focus energy on protecting its shores.

Destroyers for Bases Agreement

FDR gave Britain 50 destroyers for 8 naval bases.

Wendell Willkie

lost in 1940 election giving FDR 1st' 3rd term.

Lend-Lease Act

1941: allowed limitless supplies to Britain.

Atlantic Conference

FDR met with Churchill and created the Atlantic Charter discussing world state after war.

Shoot-on-site policy

Issued after the "Greer" was attacked from underneath.

Japanese Embargo

issue late 1940, gave Japan 2 choices, back out or fight US.

Pearl Harbor

Hawaii base surprise bombed by japan on December 7, 1941, which eagered America to enter the war

James G. Blaine

SOS in two administrations, Harrison and Garfield, and urged Big Sister Policy to LA.

Valparaiso

Where two Americans were killed, forcing Chile to pay indemnity, almost war.

McKinley Tariff

Brought sugar/economic problems urging U.S. to Annex Hawaii.

Spanish American War

In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence

Hearst

United States newspaper publisher whose introduction of large headlines and sensational reporting changed American journalism (1863-1951)

USS Maine

Battleship sent to Cuba for protection, exploded killing 260. Feb 15 '98

The Teller Amendment

In response to McKinley's war message, developed clause that US could not annex cuba.

George Dewey

a United States naval officer remembered for his victory at Manila Bay in the Spanish-American War

Battle of San Juan Hill

Victory by the Rough Riders, key Battle in Span-American war. (US 3 times the casualties, mostly blacks)

Insular Cases

Supreme Court declared Constitution didn't extend to Philippines and Puerto Rico.

Platt Ammendment

allowed the U.S. to intervene in Cuba and gave the U.S. control of the naval base at Guantanamo Bay

Anti-Imperialist League

Group formed after Treaty of Paris, wanting Filipino freedom.

Foraker Act

Gave Puerto Rico limited popular gov't and later full citizenship.

Treaty of Paris of 1898

Ended Spanish-American War, giving US Guam and Puerto Rico, + U.S. payed 20 Million for Phillipines, and Spain assumed Debt of Cuba (400$Mill.)

Battle of Manila Bay

Lead by George Dewey, A decisive defeat killing 400 without a single death.

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