British archaeologist who excavated the palace of Knossos in Crete to find what he called Minoan civilization (1851-1941)
German archaeologist who discovered nine superimposed city sites of Troy
Earliest Greek civilization that had developed on the island of Crete; traders and seafarer
A group of people that were warlike and measured wealth by the number of weapons they owned; conquered the Minoans
A Greek-speaking people who migrated into mainland Greece after the destruction of the Mycenaean civilization.
Athenian lawmaker whose code of laws prescribed death for almost every offense (circa 7th century BC)
Athenian reformer of the 6th century; established laws that eased the burden of debt on farmers, forbade enslavement for debt
Tyrant who took land from nobles and gave it to peasants, reduced privledges of nobles
law making body: granted some citizenship to some immigrants and former slaves; set-up Council of 500; introduced Ostracism
2nd Persian king who wanted to take over polises and attcked Greece in 490 BCE (Battle of Marathon) yet lost the battle to Athenians
King Darius III
The last king of the Achaemedid Empire of Persia from 336 BC to 330 BC. It was under his rule that the Persian Empire was conquered during the Wars of Alexander the Great.
King Darius' son and successor; lead the battle of Thermopylae; was determined to defaeat the Greeks; in 480 BC he led an army into Greece; the Spartans joined into help the Athenians
A key Persian leader, who was killed during the Battle of Platea
Writer of tragedies; wrote Oresteia; proposed the idea of having two actors and using props and costumes
Greek writer of tragedies; author of Oedipus Rex and Antigone
Writer of tragedies; used regular people instead of Gods; and tried to answer real life questions in playwrite; wrote Medea and The Trojan Women
Writer of comedies; wrote in satire; wrote Lysistrata and the Birds
Advocated the maxim "know thyself"; created th Socratic Method; put on trial at 70 for corrupting the minds of youth; death by Hemlock (poison); left no written works; most famous student was Plato
Socrates' most famous student; Deeply disturbed by the death of Socrates; went to North Africa and Italy for 10 years; created the Academy; wrote Dialogues; aristocracy of intelligence trained to rule; wrote The Republic
Plato's most famous student; was at The Academy for 20 years; analyzed all types of government; suspicious of democracy; invented the method of arguing according to the rules of logic; applied methods to psychology, physics, and biology.
An Athenian general who fought in the Peloponnesian War; wrote The History of the Peloponnesian War
Father of history; wrote The History of the Persian War
Dreamed of conquering Greek city-states; defeated Athens and Thebes at the Battle of Chaeronea; disowned his wife and son; assassinated at his daughter's wedding
King Phillip II's wife; plotted against her husband
Runner that carried messages to Sparta and Athens and died inside of the Athenian gates after the Battle of Marathon; modern marathons are imitations of his 26 mile run
in one of his scientific conclusions estimated that the sun was at least 300 times larger than Earth.
compiled a geometry textbook called Elements; regarded as best mathematician in Alexandria
Hellenistic scientist of Syracuse; studied at Alexandria. He accurately estimated the value of pi-the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, and he explained the law of the lever.
director of the Alexandrian Library ... tried to calculate the Earth's true size using geometry
The Alexandrian Library
a collection of half a million papyrus scrolls that included many of the masterpieces of ancient literature; first true research library in the world; it helped promote the work of a gifted group of scholars.
Alexander the Great
the son of Philip II and Olympias (his fourth wife), his mother claimed Achilles as an ancestor; tutored by Aristotle in political science, ethics, science, and literature; gained an appreciation of Homer; was given major responsibilities early on -- at the age of 16, became Macedonian Regent (ruling representative) while Philip was away fighting
Alexander's best friend and lover died in 324 B. C. E. from a fever and alcohol consumption.
Alexander the Great's legendary horse
The greatest storyteller that was a blind man. Composed his epics sometime between 750 and 700. One of his greatest epic poems is the Iliad.
Described how Archimedes demonstrated to an audience of curious onlookers how something heavy can be moved by small force.
A wise and able statesman led Athens during much of its golden age; skillful politician, and inspiring speaker, and respected general; had three goals: (1) to strengthen Athenian democracy, (2) to hold and strengthen the empire, and (3) to glorify Athens.
was the main sculptor of the Parthenon
Founded the school of thought called Epicureanism He taught that gods who had no interest in humans ruled the universe; believed that the only real objects were those that the five senses perceived.
A Greek philosopher that founded the school of philosophy called Stoicism.
A key Spartan general that launched a surprise attack in the Aegospotami harbor.
the Athenian commander, ordered everyone to leave Athens; tricked the Persian fleet so they would sail into a narrow channel (a strait) between Greece and the island of Salamis.
Plato's school where he taught and wrote his own ideas
Aristotle opened his own school in Athens called the
A long narrative poem celebrating the deeds of legendary or traditional heroes
meaning virtue and excellence.
a Greek city-state---the fundamental political unit of ancient Greece after about 750 BC
a fortified hilltop in an ancient Greek city
the open space that served as the civic center and market place of ancient Greek cities
heavily armed Greek infantrymen marched and fought in close ranks; most of the recruits were middle-class citizen
term for the battle formation of Greek hoplites; it consisted of tightly packed row of hoplites, typically 8 ranks deep. The formation was suited for fighting on level ground but did not work well in difficult terrain
a government in which power is in the hands of a single person
meaning "power of the best"; hereditary, landowning nobility in charge of Greece
"leadership of the few"; a form of government in which the full exercise of political rights and power in a city-state was limited to the affluent...many of them were aristocrats. In the 5th century BC, Sparta was the leading proponent of oligarchy
arbitrary or unrestrained exercise of power; despotic abuse of authority. The government or rule of a tyrant or absolute ruler.
"power of the people" or "rule by the people"; form of government that originated in Athens in which political institutions were open to all male citizens rather than being controlled by the wealthy few.
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives.
peasants forced to stay on the land they worked.
a group of five men who were elected each year and were responsible for the education of the youth.
procedure used by the Athenian assembly in the 5th century BC to banish an unpopular or potentially dangerous citizen for ten years, without revoking his citizenship or property rights. Each voted wrote the name of the individual he wanted exiled on an ostrakon, which was then placed in an urn. There had to be at least 6,000 votes against one man.
a broken piece of clay pottery used for writing. In Athens, most of that was found was used as tablets for inscribing the name of candidates for ostracism.
another name for ceremonies or rites.
a sacred shrine where a god or goddess revealed the future through a priest of a priestess.
the first Greek dramas; presented in a trilogy...serious drama about common themes such as love, hate, war, or betrayal.
a contrast to Greek tragedies...scene filled with lots of humor.
an organized system of thought
Question-and-answer approach to teaching
Greek culture blended with Egyptian, Persian, and Indian influences.
A Greek philosopher named Zeno founded the school of philosophy called it this. Focus #1 - Stoics proposed that people should live virtuous lives in harmony with the will of god or the natural laws that God established to run the universe. Focus #2 - Stoics preached that power, wealth and human desires were dangerous distractions that should be checked. Stoicism promoted social unity and encouraged its followers to focus on what they could control.
Battle of Marathon
In 490 B.C. King Darius of Persian sent an army to attack Athens. He wanted revenge. Eight years earlier, the Athenians had burned the Persian city of Sardis. The Athenian army defeated the strong Persian force at the Battle of Marathon. An athlete, Pheidippides, ran 26 miles from Marathon to Athens with the news.
Battle of Thermopylae
Darius' son, Xerxes, was determined to defeat the Greeks. In 480 B.C. he led an army into Greece. The Spartans joined in to help the Athenians. The Greeks fought bravely but were defeated by the Persians at Thermopylae. The Persians marched on towards Athens.
Battle of Salamis
Themistocles, the Athenian commander, ordered everyone to leave Athens. Women and children went to the islands. The men joined the triremes (Greek warships) to fight at sea. Themistocles tricked the Persian fleet so they would sail into a narrow channel between Greece and the island of Salamis. The Greeks triremes were waiting for them. Persians lost most of their ships in the battle. The Athenian navy defeated the Persians in 480 B.C. at Salamis. Persians were defeated by the Spartan army at the Battle of Plataea in 479 B.C.
Battle of Plataea
The Persians regrouped ... back in control again ... had a new goal: to attack Sparta.The Persians and allies (Theban allies) met the Greeks at Plataea. General MARDONIUS was a key Persian leader.
Battle of Chaeronea
In 338 B. C., when Athens and Thebes joined forces against him, he defeated them at the ______________; Ultimately, this victory brought all of Greece under his control.
the traditional garment of Greek women; a sleeveless typically ankle length tunic formed from a single piece of wool/generally worn pinned at the shoulders and belted.
the modern name for the script, composed of signs and pictures, in which Mycenaean Greeks kept records on tablets of clay.
a two-handled jar used for the storage and transport of wine, oil, dried fish, and other commodities
god of medicine, with sanctuaries throughout the Greek world.
Greek silver coin; its name derives from the word for "handful"
term for the roughly 200-year period in Greek history that followed the final collapse of the Mycenaean civilization in the 12th century BC.
term referring to the period of Greek history that begins with the defeat of the Persian invaders in 480-479 BC and ends with Alexander the Great's accession in 336 BC or with his death in 323 BC.
ritual pouring of a liquid on an altar or on the ground to honor gods, heroes, of the dead; wine, water, milk, oil, or honey were used.
This knot was attached to a wagon of the legendary King Midas of Phrygia, in the capital, Gordium. Legend claimed that the person who could un-tie the impossibly intricate knot would rule Asia. Alexander decisively cut through the knot with a sword.
traditional stories...usually about their gods.
The Delian League
The Athenians, under Pericles, used this league for funds to increase Athens' civic and military greatness.
Greek warships originated in Corinth
Colossus of Rhodes
A bronze statue that stood more than 100 feet high. One of the seven wonders of the ancient world, this huge sculpture was toppled by an earthquake in about 225 BC.
Wars between Greece and the Persian Empire (began in Ionia on the coast of Anatolia).
the period in which Athens gained and lost dominance in parts of central Greece and the Peloponnesus
It was a temple built in honor of Athena, goddess of wisdom and the protector of Athens.
from the word for "drinking together"; an after-dinner drinking party attended by elite males. According to the protocol of a symposium, they sang poems, posed riddles, played drinking games, and delivered philosophical speeches. Other entertainment was provided by musicians, jugglers, acrobats, and prostitutes.
Greece, Persia, Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Egypt
Sea found in the middle of Greece, Anatolia, and Crete.
area along the central west coast of Asia Minor colonized by settlers from mainland Greece from about 1000 BC. Ionian Greeks, including Homer, played a central role in the early development of Greek history and literature following the Dark Ages.
Located in southern Greece on a steep, rocky ridge and surrounded by a protective wall more than 20 feet thick; could withstand almost any attack
Nearly cut off from the rest of Greece by the Gulf of Corinth; contrasted sharply with the other city-states; built a city-state
the large land-mass which forms the southern part of mainland Greece.
the western Asian peninsula comprising most of modern-day Turkey, known to the Greeks as Anatolia.
fertile region in northeastern Greece bounded by mountains, the most famous of which was Mount Olympus, the legendary home of the major gods of the Greek pantheon
Located just north of Greece, had a rough terrain and a cold climate.
a leading city of ancient Greece famous for its architecture, pottery, and shipbuilding
An Egyptian city that became the foremost center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization.
Alexander's key victory as a young adult
A small village near the ruins of ancient Nineveh; two armies
the highest mountain in Greece.
Written by Homer. The heroes are warriors: the fierce Greek Achilles and the courageous and noble Hector of Troy.
A epic poem written by Homer. Tells the story of a man that had trouble coming home after the Trojan War.
Plato's most famous work; Plato sets forth his version of a perfectly governed society.
written by Plutarch
Elements of Geometry
written by Euclid
History of the Persian Wars
written by Herodotus
History of the Peloponnesian Wars
written by Thucydides